El viaje apropiado comienza

El "Viaje de descubrimiento a través del tiempo" comienza con este cuarto artículo. Podemos comenzar nuestro "Viaje de Descubrimiento" utilizando las señales y la información del entorno que hemos obtenido de los resúmenes de los Capítulos de la Biblia de los artículos (2) y (3) en esta serie y los Descubrimientos clave realizados al examinar las "Preguntas para la reflexión". "Sección en el artículo (3).

Para garantizar que el viaje sea fácil de seguir, las escrituras analizadas y discutidas generalmente se citarán en su totalidad para una fácil referencia, lo que permite la repetida relectura y referencia del contexto y el texto. Por supuesto, se recomienda encarecidamente al lector que lea estos pasajes de la Biblia directamente, si es posible, al menos una vez.

En este artículo examinaremos y descubriremos:

  • ¿Cuándo comenzó el exilio?
    • Ezequiel, varios capítulos
    • Esther 2
    • Jeremiah 29 y 52
    • Mateo 1
  • Profecías anteriores cumplidas por los acontecimientos del exilio judío y el regreso
    • Levítico 26
    • Deuteronomio 4
    • 1 Kings 8
  • Pasajes individuales de las Escrituras clave
    • Jeremías 27 - 70 años de servidumbre anunciados para Judá y las naciones
    • Jeremiah 25 - Babylon sería llamado a rendir cuentas, terminando los años 70

Descubrimientos clave

1 ¿Cuándo comenzó el exilio?

Una pregunta muy importante a considerar es: ¿Cuándo comenzó el exilio?

A menudo se supone que el exilio judío comenzó con la destrucción de Jerusalén por Nabucodonosor en el 11th año de Sedequías y terminó con el regreso de los judíos a Judá y Jerusalén con el decreto de Ciro en su 1st año.

Sin embargo, ¿qué dicen las escrituras sobre esto?

Ezequiel

Ezequiel se refiere claramente al exilio como el comienzo de la deportación de Joaquín, que tuvo lugar 11 años antes de la destrucción final de Jerusalén, y la eliminación de Sedequías como rey.

  • Ezequiel 1: 2 "en el quinto año del exilio del rey Joaquín"[I]
  • Ezequiel 8: 1 "en el sexto año " [Ii]
  • Ezequiel 20:1 "En el séptimo año"
  • Ezequiel 24:1 "En el noveno año 10th mes 10th día" El asedio comienza contra Jerusalén. (9th año Sedequías)
  • Ezequiel 29: 1 "en el décimo año "
  • Ezequiel 26: 1 "Y ocurrió en el undécimo año " muchas naciones vendrán contra Tiro. Versículo 7, Jehová traerá a Nabucodonosor contra Tiro.
  • Ezequiel 30: 20; 31: 1 "en el undécimo año "
  • Ezequiel 32: 1, 17 "En el duodécimo año ... de nuestro exilio"
  • Ezequiel 33:21 "Ocurrió en el 12th año en el 10th mes en el 5th día en que vino a mí el que escapó de Jerusalén diciendo 'La ciudad ha sido derribada' ".
  • Ezequiel 40: 1 "en el vigésimo quinto año de nuestro exilio, a principios de año, en el 10th día del mes en el 14th año después de que la ciudad hubiera sido derribada "
  • Ezequiel 29: 17 "en el vigésimo séptimo año "

Esther

Esther 2: 5, 6 habla de "Mardoqueo ... hijo de Kish que había sido llevado al exilio de Jerusalén con las personas deportadas que fueron llevadas al exilio. con Jeconías (Joaquín) el rey de Judá a quien Nabucodonosor, rey de Babilonia, llevó al exilio."

Jeremías 29

Jeremiah 29: 1, 2, 4, 14, 16, 20, 22, 30. Este capítulo fue escrito en 4th Año de Sedequías. Estos versículos contienen múltiples referencias a exiliados, claramente referidos a aquellos que ya estaban en Babilonia al momento de escribir. Estos exiliados fueron los que se habían exiliado con Joaquín 4 años antes.

Jeremías 52

Jeremías 52:28-30 "Se exilió: en el séptimo año, judíos 3,023; en el 18th [Iii] año Nabucodonosor, ... 832; en el 23rd año de Nabucodonosor, almas 745 ". Nota: La mayor cantidad de exiliados estaba en 7th (reinado) año de Nabucodonosor (el exilio de Joaquín y Ezequiel). (Estos versos parecen ser versos adicionales para completar la historia y contienen información que no se debe tener a mano cuando Jeremiah escribió su relato. Jeremiah no habría tenido acceso a las figuras de los exiliados, mientras que Daniel o Ezra hubieran tenido acceso a los documentos babilónicos que documentan El libro de Jeremías parece usar dataciones egipcias para el reinado de Nabucodonosor y, por lo tanto, los años de Nabucodonosor mencionaron que hay años 1 consistentemente posteriores a las tabletas de arcilla cuneiforme fechadas para el mismo evento (s).)[Iv] Estos años mencionados parecen ser cantidades adicionales llevadas al exilio, tal vez al comienzo del asedio en 7 de Nabucodonosor.th año con la deportación principal de Joaquín que tiene lugar un mes o dos más tarde en la primera parte de 8 de Nabucodonosorth año. Del mismo modo, el 18th probablemente fueron llevados al exilio de ciudades periféricas tomadas en el período previo al asedio final de Jerusalén que duró hasta el 19th año de Nabucodonosor. El 23rd año exilio puede estar refiriéndose a los llevados al exilio que huyeron a Egipto cuando Egipto fue atacado nuevamente unos años más tarde.

Mateo

Mateo 1: 11, 12 "Josías se convirtió en padre de Jeconías (Joaquín) y de sus hermanos en el momento de la deportación a[V] Babilonia. Después de la deportación a Babilonia, Jeconiah se convirtió en padre de Shealtiel ".

Nota: Si bien la deportación mencionada no se menciona específicamente como la de Jeconiah (Joaquín), ya que él es el principal objetivo de este pasaje, es lógico entender que la deportación mencionada es la que ocurrió cuando él mismo fue deportado. No es lógico concluir que la deportación mencionada ocurriría en algún momento posterior, como en el 11 de Sedequías.th año, especialmente en el contexto de Jeremiah 52: 28 mencionado anteriormente.

Número de descubrimiento principal 1: "El exilio" se refiere al exilio de Joaquín. Esto tuvo lugar 11 años antes de la destrucción de Jerusalén y Judá. Ver en particular Ezequiel 40: 1, donde Ezequiel declara que Jerusalén cayó 14 años antes del 25th año de exilio, dando una fecha de 11th año de exilio por la destrucción de Jerusalén y Ezequiel 33: 21 donde recibe noticias de la destrucción de Jerusalén en 12th año y 10th mes casi un año después.

Un exilio más pequeño ocurrió al final del reinado de Sedequías con la destrucción de Jerusalén y otro exilio menor unos 5 años después, probablemente de Egipto.[VI]

2 Profecías anteriores cumplidas por los acontecimientos del exilio judío y el regreso

Leviticus 26: 27, 34, 40-42: arrepentimiento, el requisito principal para la restauración del exilio, no el tiempo

"27'Sin embargo, si con esto NO me escuchas y solo tienes que caminar en oposición a mí, 28 Entonces tendré que caminar en una acalorada oposición a TI, y yo, sí, yo, tendré que castigarte siete veces por TUS pecados '' ''.34Y yo, por mi parte, pondré la tierra desolada, y tus enemigos que habitan en ella simplemente la mirarán asombrados. Y yo los esparciré entre las naciones ... y tu tierra se convertirá en una desolación, y tus ciudades se convertirán en una ruina desolada. En ese momento, la tierra pagará sus días de reposo todos los días de su desolación, mientras estás en la tierra de tus enemigos. En ese momento la tierra guardará el sábado, ya que debe pagar sus días de reposo. Todos los días de su mentira desolada guardará el sábado, por la razón de que no lo guardó durante los días de reposo cuando estabas pensando en él. "40Y ciertamente confesarán su propio error y el error de sus padres en su infidelidad cuando se comportaron infielmente hacia mí ...41... Quizás en ese momento su corazón incircunciso se humille, y en ese momento pagarán su error. 42Y ciertamente recordaré mi pacto con Jacob ".

Número de descubrimiento principal 2: Se predijo alrededor de 900 años antes que debido a negarse a obedecer a Jehová, los judíos se dispersarían. Esto tuvo lugar con

  • (1a) Israel se dispersó sobre Asiria y luego
  • (1b) Judá sobre Asiria y Babilonia
  • (2) También se advirtió que la tierra estaría desolada, lo que era, y que mientras estaba desolada
  • (3) pagaría los años sabáticos perdidos.

No se especificó ningún período de tiempo, y todos estos eventos separados de 3 (dispersión, desolación, pago de los días de reposo) tuvieron lugar.

Deuteronomio 4: 25-31 - Arrepentimiento, el requisito principal para la restauración del exilio, no el tiempo

“En caso de que seas padre de hijos y nietos y TÚ hayas residido mucho tiempo en la tierra y actúes de manera ruinosa y hagas una imagen tallada, una forma de cualquier cosa, y cometas maldad ante los ojos de Jehová tu Dios para ofenderlo 26 Hoy tomo como testigos contra USTEDES los cielos y la tierra, que USTED perecerá positivamente a toda prisa desde la tierra hacia la cual está cruzando el Jordán para tomar posesión de ella. No alargarás TUS días en él, porque serás aniquilado positivamente. 27 Y Jehová ciertamente te esparcirá entre los pueblos, y ciertamente serás dejado ser pocos en número entre las naciones a las que Jehová te alejará. 28 Y allí TÚ tendrás que servir a los dioses, producto de las manos del hombre, la madera y la piedra, que no pueden ver ni oír, ni comer ni oler. 29 “Si USTEDES busca a Jehová su Dios desde allí, ciertamente también lo encontrará, porque lo preguntará con todo su corazón y con toda su alma. 30 Cuando estés en apuros y todas estas palabras te hayan descubierto al final de los días, entonces tendrás que volver a Jehová tu Dios y escuchar su voz. 31 Porque Jehová tu Dios es un Dios misericordioso. Él no te abandonará ni te llevará a la ruina ni olvidará el pacto de tus antepasados ​​que les juró ".

Número de descubrimiento principal 2 (cont.): En esta escritura se transmite un mensaje similar al que se encuentra en Levítico. Los israelitas se dispersarían y muchos serían asesinados. Además, tendrían que arrepentirse antes de que Jehová les mostrara misericordia. Una vez más, no se menciona un período de tiempo. Sin embargo, la escritura dice que el final de la dispersión dependería de su arrepentimiento.

1 Kings 8: 46-52 - El arrepentimiento es el requisito principal para la restauración del exilio, no el tiempo

"46 "En caso de que pecan contra ti (porque no hay hombre que no peca), y tienes que estar enojado con ellos y abandonarlos al enemigo, y sus captores los llevan cautivos a la tierra del enemigo distante o cerca; 47 y de hecho cobran sentido en la tierra donde fueron llevados cautivos, y en realidad regresan y solicitan su favor en la tierra de sus captores, diciendo: 'Hemos pecado y errado, hemos actuado malvadamente' ; 48 y de hecho regresan a ti con todo su corazón y con toda su alma en la tierra de sus enemigos que los llevaron cautivos, y de hecho te rezan en la dirección de su tierra que le diste a sus antepasados, la ciudad que tú elegí y la casa que he construido a tu nombre; 49 También debe escuchar de los cielos, su lugar de residencia establecido, su oración y su solicitud de favor, y debe ejecutar el juicio por ellos, 50 y debes perdonar a tu pueblo que pecó contra ti y todas sus transgresiones con las cuales ellos transgredieron contra ti; y debes hacerlos objetos de lástima ante sus captores y ellos deben compadecerse de ellos 51 (porque son tu pueblo y tu herencia, a quienes sacaste de Egipto, del interior del hierro horno), 52 para que tus ojos se muestren abiertos a la solicitud de favor de tu siervo y a la solicitud de favor de tu pueblo Israel, escuchándolos en todo lo que te piden."

Confirmación del número de descubrimiento principal 2: Este pasaje de las Escrituras contiene un mensaje similar tanto para Levítico como para Deuteronomio. Se predijo que los israelitas pecarían contra Jehová.

  • Por lo tanto, los dispersaría y los exiliaría.
  • Además, tendrían que arrepentirse antes de que Jehová los escuchara y los restaurara.
  • La conclusión del exilio dependía del arrepentimiento, no de un período de tiempo.

Análisis de las Escrituras clave

3 Jeremiah 27: 1, 5-7: 70 Años de servidumbre anunciados

Tiempo escrito: aproximadamente 22 años antes de la destrucción de Jerusalén por Nabucodonosor

Escritura: "1Al principio del reino de Je · hoiʹa · kim, hijo de Jo · siʹah, el rey de Judá, esta palabra se le ocurrió a Jeremías de parte de Jehová, diciendo: ','5 'Yo mismo he hecho la tierra, la humanidad y las bestias que están sobre la superficie de la tierra con mi gran poder y con mi brazo extendido; y se lo he dado a quien ha resultado correcto en mis ojos. 6 Y ahora yo mismo he entregado todas estas tierras en manos de Nabucodonosor el rey de Babilonia, mi siervo; e incluso las bestias salvajes del campo que le he dado para que lo sirva. 7 Y todas las naciones deben servir incluso a él, a su hijo y a su nieto hasta que llegue el momento de su propia tierra, y muchas naciones y grandes reyes deben explotarlo como siervo ''.

8 “'“' Y debe ocurrir que la nación y el reino que no le sirvan, incluso Nab · u · chad · nezʹzar el rey de Babilonia; y al que no ponga su cuello debajo del yugo del rey de Babilonia, con la espada y con el hambre y con la peste, pondré mi atención sobre esa nación, 'es la expresión de Jehová', hasta que tenga Los terminó con su mano.''

En la primera parte del reinado de Joacim, (v1 declara "En el comienzo del reino de Joacim"), las escrituras en el versículo 6, establecen que todas las tierras de Judá, Edom, etc., habían sido entregadas por Jehová a Nabucodonosor. Incluso las bestias salvajes del campo (contraste con Daniel 4: 12, 24-26, 30-32, 37 y Daniel 5: 18-23) fueron dados

  • para servirle
  • su hijo (Evil-Merodach, también conocido como Amel-Marduk, rey de Babilonia) y
  • su nieto[Vii] (Belsasar, hijo de Nabonido[Viii] Rey de Babilonia, fue efectivo Rey de Babilonia en su destrucción)
  • hasta que llegara el tiempo de su propia tierra [Babilonia].
  • La palabra hebrea "reshith"Significa" comienzo "como en" el comienzo de "o" primero "en lugar de" temprano ".

Versos estados 6 “And now I myself {Jehovah] have given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar” indicating the action of giving has already taken place, otherwise the wording would be future “I will give”. See also confirmation given at 2 Kings 24:7 where the record states that at the latest, by the time of the death of Jehoiakim, the King of Egypt would not come out of his land, and all the land from the Torrent Valley of Egypt to the Euphrates was brought under the control of Nebuchadnezzar.

(If it was Year 1 of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar would have been crown prince and chief general of the Babylonian army (crown princes were often viewed as kings, especially as they were the appointed successor), as he became king in the 3rd Year of Jehoiakim).

Judah, Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon were therefore already under the domination of Nebuchadnezzar serving him at this time.

Verse 7 emphasises this when it states “And all the nations must serve even him” again indicating the nations would have to continue serving, otherwise the verse would state (in future tense) “and all the nations will have to serve him”. To “serve him, his son, and his son’s son (grandson)” implies a long period of time, which would only end when “the time even of his own land comes, and many nations and great kings must exploit him’”. Therefore, the end of the servitude of the nations including Judah, would be at Babylon’s fall, which took place in 539 BCE, not at some unspecified time afterward (e.g. 537 BCE). Servitude to Cyrus and Medo-Persia was not included in this prophecy.

The whole emphasis of this section was on servitude to Babylon, which had already started, and which would end with Babylon itself going under servitude. This occurred with domination by Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome before completely fading into obscurity and abandonment.

Fig 4.3 Start and duration of Servitude to Babylon

Main Discovery Number 3: 70 years of servitude to Babylon foretold, starting early in Jehoiakim’s reign.

4. Jeremiah 25:9-13 – 70 Years servitude completed; Babylon called to account.

Time Written: 18 years before Jerusalem’s Destruction by Nebuchadnezzar

Scripture: 1The word that occurred to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah in the fourth year of Je·hoiʹa·kim the son of Jo·siʹah, the king of Judah, that is, the first year of Neb·u·chad·rezʹzar the king of Babylon;’

“Therefore this is what Jehovah of armies has said, ‘“For the reason that YOU did not obey my words, 9 here I am sending and I will take all the families of the north,” is the utterance of Jehovah, “even [sending] to Neb·u·chad·rezʹzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and I will bring them against this land and against its inhabitants and against all these nations round about; and I will devote them to destruction and make them an object of astonishment and something to whistle at and places devastated to time indefinite. 10 And I will destroy out of them the sound of exultation and the sound of rejoicing, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the sound of the hand mill and the light of the lamp. 11 And all this land must become a devastated place, an object of astonishment, and these nations will have to serve the king of Babylon seventy years.”’

12 “‘And it must occur that when seventy years have been fulfilled I shall call to account against the king of Babylon and against that nation,’ is the utterance of Jehovah, ‘their error, even against the land of the Chal·deʹans, and I will make it desolate wastes to time indefinite. 13 And I will bring in upon that land all my words that I have spoken against it, even all that is written in this book that Jeremiah has prophesied against all the nations. 14 For even they themselves, many nations and great kings, have exploited them as servants; and I will repay them according to their activity and according to the work of their hands.’

In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah prophesied that Babylon would be called to account for its actions at the completion of 70 years. He prophesied “and all this land will be reduced to ruins and will become an object of horror; and these nations will have to serve the king of Babylon for 70 years. (13) But when 70 years have been fulfilled (completed), I will call to account the king of Babylon and that nation for their error, declares Jehovah, and I will make the land of the Chaldeans a desolate wasteland for all time”.

These nations will have to serve the King of Babylon for 70 years”

What were “these nations” that would have to serve the King of Babylon for 70 years? Verse 9 stated it was “this land .. and against all these nations around about.” Verse 19-25 goes on to list the nations round about: “Pharaoh the King of Egypt … all the kings of the land of Uz … the kings of the land of the Philistines, … Edom and Moab and the sons of Ammon; and all the kings of Tyre and … Sidon … and Dedan and Tema and Buz… and all the kings of the Arabs … and all the kings of Zimri … Elam and … Medes.

Why was Jeremiah instructed to prophesy that Babylon would called to account after the completion of 70 years? Jeremiah says, “for their error”. It was because of Babylon’s pride and presumptuous actions in attacking God’s people, even though Jehovah was allowing them to bring punishment on Judah and the surrounding nations.

The phrases “will have to serve” and “shall” are in the perfect tense indicating these nations (listed in following verses) would have to complete the action of serving the 70 years. Therefore, Judah and the other nations were already under the Babylonian domination, serving them and would have to continue doing so until completion of this period of 70 years in progress. It was not a future period of time not yet started. This is confirmed by v12 talking about when the 70-year period was completed.

Jeremiah 28 records how in the 4th year of Zedekiah that Hananiah, a prophet, gave a false prophecy that Jehovah would break the yoke of the King of Babylon within two years. Jeremiah 28:11 also shows that the yoke was on “the neck of all the nations”, not just Judah already at that time.

The seventy years would also end, having been completed, fulfilled.

When would this occur? Verse 13 states it would be when Babylon was called to account, not before and not after.

When was Babylon called to Account?

Daniel 5:26-28 records the events of the night of the fall of Babylon: “I have number the days of your kingdom and finished it, … you have been weighed in the balances and found deficient, … your kingdom has been divided and given to the Medes and Persians.” Using the generally accepted date of mid-October 539 BCE[ix] for the fall of Babylon we add 70 years which takes us back to 609 BCE. The devastations and destruction were foretold because the Judeans did not obey Jehovah’s command to serve Babylon (see Jeremiah 25:8[x]) and Jeremiah 27:7[xi] stated they would “serve Babylon until their (Babylon’s) time comes”.

Taking October 539 BCE and adding back 70 years, we get to 609 BCE. Did anything significant happen in 609 BCE / 608 BCE? [xii] Yes, it seems that the shift of the World Power from the Bible’s point of view, from Assyria to Babylon, took place when Nabopalassar and his Crown Prince son, Nebuchadnezzar took Harran, the last remaining city of Assyria and broke its power. Assyria’s last King, Ashur-uballit III was killed within little over a year in 608 BCE and Assyria ceased to exist as a separate nation.

Fig 4.4 – 70 Years Servitude to Babylon, Babylon called to account

Main Discovery Number 4: Babylon would be called to account at the end of 70 years servitude. This occurred in the date we know as October 539 BC according to Daniel 5 meaning the servitude had to have started in October 609 BC.

The fifth part of our series will continue with our “Journey of Discovery through Time”, considering important verses in Jeremiah 25, 28, 29, 38, 42 and Ezekiel 29. Be prepared as the discoveries come thick and fast.

[i] The 5th year of the exile of Jehoiachin equates to the 5th Year of Zedekiah.

[ii] Note: As these chapters were / are to be read as part of one book (scroll), it would not be necessary for Ezekiel to keep repeating the phrase “of the exile of Jehoiachin”. This would be implied instead.

[iii] Jeremiah 52:28-30 likely refers to exiles taken from other towns of Judah before the sieges of Jerusalem as they are all only months before the main exiles recorded in the Book of Kings and Chronicles and elsewhere in Jeremiah.

[iv] Please see article 1 of this series for a discussion of calendars and regnal years.

[v] Greek Phrase here is correctly “of Babylon” i.e. by Babylon not “to Babylon”, see Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures (1969)

[vi] See Jeremiah 52

[vii] It is unclear whether this phrase was meant to be a literal grandson or offspring, or the generations of a line of kings from Nebuchadnezzar. Neriglissar succeeded Nebuchadnezzar’s son Evil (Amil)-Marduk and was also a son-in-law to Nebuchadnezzar. Neriglissar’s son Labashi-Marduk rule only about 9 months before being succeeded by Nabonidus. Either explanation fits the facts and hence fufills the prophecy. See 2 Chronicles 36:20 “servants to him and his sons”.

[viii] Nabonidus was probably a son-in-law of Nebuchadnezzar as it is believed he also married a daughter of Nebuchadnezzar.

[ix] According to the Nabonidus Chronicle (a cuneiform clay tablet) the Fall of Babylon was on the 16th day of Tasritu (Babylonian), (Hebrew – Tishri) equivalent to 13th October.

[x] Jeremiah 25:8 Therefore this is what Jehovah of armies has said, ‘“For the reason that YOU did not obey my words,”

[xi] Jeremiah 27:7 And all the nations must serve even him and his son and his grandson until the time even of his own land comes, and many nations and great kings must exploit him as a servant.”

[xii] When quoting secular chronology dates at this time period in history we need to be careful in stating dates categorically as there is rarely a full consensus on a particular event occurring in a particular year. “And now I myself {Jehovah] have given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar” indicating the action of giving has already taken place, otherwise the wording would be future “I will give”. See also confirmation given at 2 Kings 24:7 where the record states that at the latest, by the time of the death of Jehoiakim, the King of Egypt would not come out of his land, and all the land from the Torrent Valley of Egypt to the Euphrates was brought under the control of Nebuchadnezzar.

(If it was Year 1 of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar would have been crown prince and chief general of the Babylonian army (crown princes were often viewed as kings, especially as they were the appointed successor), as he became king in the 3rd Year of Jehoiakim).

Judah, Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon were therefore already under the domination of Nebuchadnezzar serving him at this time.

Verse 7 emphasises this when it states “And all the nations must serve even him” again indicating the nations would have to continue serving, otherwise the verse would state (in future tense) “and all the nations will have to serve him”. To “serve him, his son, and his son’s son (grandson)” implies a long period of time, which would only end when “the time even of his own land comes, and many nations and great kings must exploit him’”. Therefore, the end of the servitude of the nations including Judah, would be at Babylon’s fall, which took place in 539 BCE, not at some unspecified time afterward (e.g. 537 BCE). Servitude to Cyrus and Medo-Persia was not included in this prophecy.

The whole emphasis of this section was on servitude to Babylon, which had already started, and which would end with Babylon itself going under servitude. This occurred with domination by Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome before completely fading into obscurity and abandonment.

Fig 4.3 Start and duration of Servitude to Babylon

Main Discovery Number 3: 70 years of servitude to Babylon foretold, starting early in Jehoiakim’s reign.

4. Jeremiah 25:9-13 – 70 Years servitude completed; Babylon called to account.

Time Written: 18 years before Jerusalem’s Destruction by Nebuchadnezzar

Scripture: 1The word that occurred to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah in the fourth year of Je·hoiʹa·kim the son of Jo·siʹah, the king of Judah, that is, the first year of Neb·u·chad·rezʹzar the king of Babylon;’

“Therefore this is what Jehovah of armies has said, ‘“For the reason that YOU did not obey my words, 9 here I am sending and I will take all the families of the north,” is the utterance of Jehovah, “even [sending] to Neb·u·chad·rezʹzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and I will bring them against this land and against its inhabitants and against all these nations round about; and I will devote them to destruction and make them an object of astonishment and something to whistle at and places devastated to time indefinite. 10 And I will destroy out of them the sound of exultation and the sound of rejoicing, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the sound of the hand mill and the light of the lamp. 11 And all this land must become a devastated place, an object of astonishment, and these nations will have to serve the king of Babylon seventy years.”’

12 “‘And it must occur that when seventy years have been fulfilled I shall call to account against the king of Babylon and against that nation,’ is the utterance of Jehovah, ‘their error, even against the land of the Chal·deʹans, and I will make it desolate wastes to time indefinite. 13 And I will bring in upon that land all my words that I have spoken against it, even all that is written in this book that Jeremiah has prophesied against all the nations. 14 For even they themselves, many nations and great kings, have exploited them as servants; and I will repay them according to their activity and according to the work of their hands.’

In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah prophesied that Babylon would be called to account for its actions at the completion of 70 years. He prophesied “and all this land will be reduced to ruins and will become an object of horror; and these nations will have to serve the king of Babylon for 70 years. (13) But when 70 years have been fulfilled (completed), I will call to account the king of Babylon and that nation for their error, declares Jehovah, and I will make the land of the Chaldeans a desolate wasteland for all time”.

These nations will have to serve the King of Babylon for 70 years”

What were “these nations” that would have to serve the King of Babylon for 70 years? Verse 9 stated it was “this land .. and against all these nations around about.” Verse 19-25 goes on to list the nations round about: “Pharaoh the King of Egypt … all the kings of the land of Uz … the kings of the land of the Philistines, … Edom and Moab and the sons of Ammon; and all the kings of Tyre and … Sidon … and Dedan and Tema and Buz… and all the kings of the Arabs … and all the kings of Zimri … Elam and … Medes.

Why was Jeremiah instructed to prophesy that Babylon would called to account after the completion of 70 years? Jeremiah says, “for their error”. It was because of Babylon’s pride and presumptuous actions in attacking God’s people, even though Jehovah was allowing them to bring punishment on Judah and the surrounding nations.

The phrases “will have to serve” and “shall” are in the perfect tense indicating these nations (listed in following verses) would have to complete the action of serving the 70 years. Therefore, Judah and the other nations were already under the Babylonian domination, serving them and would have to continue doing so until completion of this period of 70 years in progress. It was not a future period of time not yet started. This is confirmed by v12 talking about when the 70-year period was completed.

Jeremiah 28 records how in the 4th year of Zedekiah that Hananiah, a prophet, gave a false prophecy that Jehovah would break the yoke of the King of Babylon within two years. Jeremiah 28:11 also shows that the yoke was on “the neck of all the nations”, not just Judah already at that time.

The seventy years would also end, having been completed, fulfilled.

When would this occur? Verse 13 states it would be when Babylon was called to account, not before and not after.

When was Babylon called to Account?

Daniel 5:26-28 records the events of the night of the fall of Babylon: “I have number the days of your kingdom and finished it, … you have been weighed in the balances and found deficient, … your kingdom has been divided and given to the Medes and Persians.” Using the generally accepted date of mid-October 539 BCE[ix] for the fall of Babylon we add 70 years which takes us back to 609 BCE. The devastations and destruction were foretold because the Judeans did not obey Jehovah’s command to serve Babylon (see Jeremiah 25:8[x]) and Jeremiah 27:7[xi] stated they would “serve Babylon until their (Babylon’s) time comes”.

Taking October 539 BCE and adding back 70 years, we get to 609 BCE. Did anything significant happen in 609 BCE / 608 BCE? [xii] Yes, it seems that the shift of the World Power from the Bible’s point of view, from Assyria to Babylon, took place when Nabopalassar and his Crown Prince son, Nebuchadnezzar took Harran, the last remaining city of Assyria and broke its power. Assyria’s last King, Ashur-uballit III was killed within little over a year in 608 BCE and Assyria ceased to exist as a separate nation.

Fig 4.4 – 70 Years Servitude to Babylon, Babylon called to account

Main Discovery Number 4: Babylon would be called to account at the end of 70 years servitude. This occurred in the date we know as October 539 BC according to Daniel 5 meaning the servitude had to have started in October 609 BC.

The fifth part of our series will continue with our “Journey of Discovery through Time”, considering important verses in Jeremiah 25, 28, 29, 38, 42 and Ezekiel 29. Be prepared as the discoveries come thick and fast.

[i] The 5th year of the exile of Jehoiachin equates to the 5th Year of Zedekiah.

[ii] Note: As these chapters were / are to be read as part of one book (scroll), it would not be necessary for Ezekiel to keep repeating the phrase “of the exile of Jehoiachin”. This would be implied instead.

[iii] Jeremiah 52:28-30 likely refers to exiles taken from other towns of Judah before the sieges of Jerusalem as they are all only months before the main exiles recorded in the Book of Kings and Chronicles and elsewhere in Jeremiah.

[iv] Please see article 1 of this series for a discussion of calendars and regnal years.

[v] Greek Phrase here is correctly “of Babylon” i.e. by Babylon not “to Babylon”, see Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures (1969)

[vi] See Jeremiah 52

[vii] It is unclear whether this phrase was meant to be a literal grandson or offspring, or the generations of a line of kings from Nebuchadnezzar. Neriglissar succeeded Nebuchadnezzar’s son Evil (Amil)-Marduk and was also a son-in-law to Nebuchadnezzar. Neriglissar’s son Labashi-Marduk rule only about 9 months before being succeeded by Nabonidus. Either explanation fits the facts and hence fufills the prophecy. See 2 Chronicles 36:20 “servants to him and his sons”.

[viii] Nabonidus was probably a son-in-law of Nebuchadnezzar as it is believed he also married a daughter of Nebuchadnezzar.

[ix] According to the Nabonidus Chronicle (a cuneiform clay tablet) the Fall of Babylon was on the 16th day of Tasritu (Babylonian), (Hebrew – Tishri) equivalent to 13th October.

[x] Jeremiah 25:8 Therefore this is what Jehovah of armies has said, ‘“For the reason that YOU did not obey my words,”

[xi] Jeremiah 27:7 And all the nations must serve even him and his son and his grandson until the time even of his own land comes, and many nations and great kings must exploit him as a servant.”

[xii] When quoting secular chronology dates at this time period in history we need to be careful in stating dates categorically as there is rarely a full consensus on a particular event occurring in a particular year. In this document I have used popular secular chronology for non-biblical events unless otherwise stated.

Tadua

Articles by Tadua.