Ngabe zenzeka? Ingabe zazivela emvelweni ngaphezu kwemvelo? Ingabe bukhona ubufakazi obengeziwe obuseBhayibhelini?

Isingeniso

Lapho sifunda izehlakalo ezilotshwe njengokwenzeka ngosuku lokufa kukaJesu, kungaphakama imibuzo eminingi ezingqondweni zethu.

  • Ngabe zenzeka ngempela?
  • Ingabe zazingokwemvelo noma zivela emvelweni?
  • Ingabe bukhona ubufakazi obengeziwe obusebhayibhelini ngokwenzeka kwabo?

Isihloko esilandelayo siveza ubufakazi obukhona kumbhali, ukuze umfundi akwazi ukuzenzela izinqumo ezinolwazi.

Ama-Akhawunti weVangeli

Ukulandisa kwamaVangeli alandelayo kuMathewu 27: 45-54, UMark 15: 33-39, noLuka 23: 44-48 arekhoda imicimbi elandelayo:

  • Ubumnyama emhlabeni wonke amahora we-3, phakathi kwe-6th ihora ne-9th (Midday to 3pm)
    • UMathewu 27: 45
    • Maka i-15: 33
    • ULuka 23: 44 - ukukhanya kwelanga kwehlulekile
  • Ukufa kukaJesu azungeze i9th
    • UMathewu 27: 46-50
    • Maka i-15: 34-37
    • ULuka 23: 46
  • Ikhethini leSanctuary liqashwe kabili - ngesikhathi sokufa kukaJesu
    • UMathewu 27: 51
    • Maka i-15: 38
    • ULuka 23: 45b
  • Ukuzamazama Komhlaba Okuqinile - ngesikhathi sokufa kukaJesu.
    • UMathewu 27: 51 - amadwala-amadwala ahlukaniswa.
  • Ukuphakamisa abangcwele
    • UMathewu 27: 52-53 - amathuna avulwa, abangcwele abalele bevukile bavuswa.
  • I-Roman Centurion imemezela ukuthi 'lo muntu wayeyiNdodana kaNkulunkulu' ngenxa yokuzamazama komhlaba nezinye izehlakalo.
    • UMathewu 27: 54
    • Maka i-15: 39
    • ULuka 23: 47

 

Ake sibheke kafushane lezi zehlakalo.

Ubumnyama bamahora we-3

Yini engenza lokhu? Noma ngabe yini ebangele lo mcimbi bekufanele ukuthi ivela emvelweni ongaphezu kwemvelo. Kanjani?

  • Amaphupho elanga angeke enzeka ngePhasika ngenxa yesimo senyanga. NgePhasika inyanga egcwele isengxenyeni ende yomhlaba kude nelanga ngakho-ke ayinakushona.
  • Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusitheka kwelanga kuphela imizuzu kuphela (imvamisa i-2-3 imizuzu, ezimweni ezibucayi mayelana nemizuzu ye-7) hhayi amahora we-3.
  • Iziphepho zivame ukwenza ilanga lihluleke (njengoba liqoshwe nguLuka), ngokuletha ngempumelelo isikhathi sasebusuku futhi uma bekwenza lokho ubumnyama buhlala imizuzu ethile hhayi amahora we-3. I-Akoob ingenza usuku luphenduke ubusuku, kepha imishini ye-phenomenon (imimoya ye-25mph nesihlabathi) yenza kube nzima ukuyondla isikhathi eside.[i] Ngisho nalezi zehlakalo ezingandile ziyizindaba ezinikezwa izindaba namuhla. Okubaluleke kakhulu, akekho ama-akhawunti akhuluma nganoma yisiphi isiphepho esinamandla noma imvula noma olunye uhlobo lwesivunguvungu. Ababhali kanye nofakazi ngabe bebezijwayele zonke lezi zinhlobo zezulu kodwa behluleka ukusho. Ngakho-ke kunethuba elincane lokuthi kube yisiphepho esinamandla kakhulu, kepha ukuhlangana kwesikhathi kuqeda kungumcimbi wemvelo onethuba.
  • Akunabufakazi befu lokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo. Akunabufakazi obuphathekayo noma ubufakazi bokuzibonela obhalelwe umcimbi onjalo. Futhi izincazelo ezisekulandiseni kwamaVangeli azifani nemiphumela yokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo.
  • Ukuhlangana kwanoma yini ebangela ubumnyama ngokwanele ukwenza 'ukukhanya kwelanga', futhi ngasikhathi sinye futhi sikwazi ukuqala ngqo ngesikhathi uJesu abethelwa ngaso bese kuthi kungazelelwe kunyamalale lapho uJesu ephelelwa yisikhathi. Noma kunomcimbi othile ongaziwa, ongaziwa noma onqabile ngokomzimba nangokwemvelo owenzeka ukuletha ubumnyama, isikhathi nesikhathi ngeke kube yinto eyenzekile. Kwakufanele kube okwemvelo, okusho ukuthi kwenziwa uNkulunkulu noma izingelosi ngaphansi kokuqondisa kwakhe.

Ukuzamazama Komhlaba Okuqinile

Kwakungekhona nje ukuthuthumela, bekuqinile ngokwanele ukwahlukanisa izixuku zamadwala e-limestone evulekile. Futhi futhi isikhathi sokwenzeka kwayo ngesikhathi noma lapho uJesu esephelelwe yisikhathi.

I-Curtain of Sangment iqashe kabili

Akukaziwa ukuthi iCurtain yayinkulu kangakanani. Kube nezilinganiso ezihlukile ezinikezwe ngokususelwa kunsiko orabi, kusuka onyaweni (amasentimitha angama-12), amayintshi we-4-6 noma i-1 inch. Noma kunjalo, ngisho ne-1 intshi[Ii] Ikhethini elenziwe ngoboya bezimbuzi obelukiwe belingaba namandla kakhulu futhi lizodinga amandla amakhulu (ngale kwalokho amadoda akwaziyo ukukwenza) ukuze liqhume kabili kusuka phezulu kuye phansi njengoba imibhalo ichaza.

Ukuphakama Ngcwele

Ngenxa yombhalo wale ndima, kunzima ukuqiniseka ukuthi uvuko lwenzekile, noma ukuthi ngenxa yamathuna avulwa ngokuzamazama komhlaba, ezinye izidumbu namathambo kwavuswa noma kwaxoshwa ethuneni.

Ingabe lwalukhona uvuko lwangempela olwenzeka ngesikhathi sokufa kukaJesu?

Imibhalo ayikacaci ngalesi sihloko. Indima ekuMathewu 27: 52-53 kunzima ukuyiqonda. Ukuqonda okujwayelekile ukuthi kwakukhona

  1. uvuko lwangempela
  2. noma, ukuthi ukuzamazama komhlaba kusuka kokuzamazama komhlaba okwenzekile kwanikeza isithombe sokuvuswa kwezidumbu noma amathambo ekhishwa emathuneni, mhlawumbe abanye 'bahlala phezulu'.

Izimpikiswano ezinikezwe

  1. Kungani kungekho okunye okubhekiselelwe emlandweni noma embhalweni ukuthi bangobani laba abangcwele abavuswa? Emva kwakho konke lokhu bekungamangaza abantu abaningi baseJerusalema kanye nabafundi bakaJesu.
  2. Ukuqonda okujwayelekile kokukhethwa (b) akunangqondo lapho ucubungula ukuthi ku-v53 le mizimba noma amathambo angena edolobheni elingcwele ngemuva kokuvuka kukaJesu.

Ngeshwa lokhu 'kuvuswa' uma kukodwa, akukhulunywa ngakho kwamanye amaVangeli, ngakho-ke akukho eminye imininingwane etholakalayo yokusisiza ukuba sikuqonde kahle lokho okwenzeka.

Kodwa-ke ukucabanga ngomongo nezinye izehlakalo ezilotshwe emaVangelini, enye incazelo engaba khona ingalandela:

Kuhunyushwa ngokoqobo umbhalo wamaGreek “Kwavulwa amathuna, kwavuka izidumbu eziningi zabangcwele (abangcwele) 53 sebephume ethuneni emva kokuvuka kwakhe bangena emzini ongcwele babonakala kwabaningi. ”

Mhlawumbe ukuqonda okunengqondo kakhulu kungaba “Kwavulwa amathuna [ngokuzamazama komhlaba]" kubhekwe ukuzamazama komhlaba okwakusanda kwenzeka (nokuqedela incazelo evesini elandulele).

I-akhawunti bese iqhubeka:

"Futhi abaningi abangcwele [ebhekisa kubaphostoli] owayelele [ngokomzimba ngenkathi egcinwe ephapheme ngaphandle kwengcwaba likaJesu] wayesesuka, ephuma [indawo amathuna emva kokuvuka kwakhe [UJesu] bangena emzini ongcwele babonakala kwabaningi [ukufakaza ngovuko]. ”

Ngemuva kovuko olujwayelekile sizokwazi ukuthola impendulo yangempela yalokho okwenzekile.

Isibonakaliso sikaJona

UMathewu 12: 39, UMathewu 16: 4, noLuka 11: I-29 iqopha uJesu ethi "Isizukulwane esibi nesiphingayo siyaqhubeka sifuna isibonakaliso, kepha asikho isibonakaliso esiyonikwa sona ngaphandle kwesibonakaliso sikaJona umprofethi. Ngoba njengoba uJona ayesesiswini senhlanzi enkulu izinsuku ezintathu nobusuku obuthathu, kanjalo neNdodana yomuntu iyoba senhliziyweni yomhlaba izinsuku ezintathu nobusuku obuthathu ”. Bheka futhi uMathewu 16: 21, UMathewu 17: 23 noLuka 24: 46.

Abaningi badidekile ukuthi lokhu kwagcwaliseka kanjani. Ithebula elilandelayo libonisa incazelo okungenzeka isuselwe kulokho okubhalwe emibhalweni ekhonjiswe ngenhla.

Ukuqonda Kwamasiko Ukuqonda Okuhlukile Day Izenzakalo
NgoLwesihlanu - Ubumnyama \ Ubusuku (Emini - 3pm) IPhasika (Nisan 14) UJesu wabethelwa esiphakathi neMini (6th Ihora) futhi ifa ngaphambi kwe-3pm (9th ihora)
NgoLwesihlanu - Usuku (6am - 6pm) NgoLwesihlanu - Usuku (3pm - 6pm) IPhasika (Nisan 14) UJesu wangcwatshwa
NgoLwesihlanu - Ubusuku (6pm - 6am) NgoLwesihlanu - Ubusuku (6pm - 6am) ISabatha Elikhulu - 7th Usuku Lwesonto Abafundi nabesifazane baphumula ngeSabatha
NgoMgqibelo - Usuku (6am - 6pm) NgoMgqibelo - Usuku (6am - 6pm) ISabatha Elikhulu - 7th Usuku (uSuku lweSabatha kanye nosuku lwangemva kwePhasika lalihlala njalo lungeSabatha) Abafundi nabesifazane baphumula ngeSabatha
NgoMgqibelo - Ubusuku (6pm - 6am) NgoMgqibelo - Ubusuku (6pm - 6am) 1st Usuku Lwesonto
NgeSonto - Usuku (6am - 6pm) NgeSonto - Usuku (6am - 6pm) 1st Usuku Lwesonto UJesu uvuse ekuseni ngeSonto
Zonke izinsuku ze-3 nama-2 Nights Izinsuku eziphelele ze-3 kanye ne-3 Nights

 

Usuku lwePhasika kuqondakala ukuthi lwalungo-Ephreli 3rd (I-33 AD) ngovuko ngeSonto lwango-Ephreli 5th. Ephreli 5th, kulo nyaka kube nokuphuma kwelanga e-06: 22, futhi ngokomlando ukuphuma kwelanga bekungaba yisikhathi esifanayo.

Ngaleyo ndlela wenza i-akhawunti kuJohn 20: 1 isho lokho "Ngosuku lokuqala lwesonto uMariya Magdalene wafika ethuneni ekuseni, kusasele ubumnyama, wabona Itshe selisusiwe ethuneni."  Konke okudingekayo ukufeza uJesu evuswa kwi-3rd usuku lungemva kwe-6: 01am nangaphambi kwe-06: 22am.

AbaFarisi besaba lesi siprofetho sikaJesu sigcwaliseka, noma ngabe ngobuqili njengoba ukulandisa kukaMathewu 27: 62-66 kukhombisa lapho isithi “Ngosuku olulandelayo, olwalungemva kokulungiselela, abapristi abakhulu nabaFarisi babuthana phambi kukaPilatu, bethi:“ Mnumzana, sikhumbule ukuthi lowo mbumbulu wathi esaphila, 'Ngemuva kwezinsuku ezintathu ngizovuswa . ' Ngakho-ke yisho ukuthi ithuna livikeleke kuze kube lusuku lwesithathu, ukuze abafundi bakhe bangaphinde beze bambambe futhi bathi kubantu, 'Uvusiwe kwabafileyo!' futhi lokhu kungcoliswa kokugcina kuzoba kubi kakhulu kunokuqala. ”UPilatu wathi kubo:“ Nina ninogada. Hambani niye kulondeka njengoba nazi. ”Ngakho-ke bayahamba baligcina ithuna ngokuphepha ngokubeka uphawu itshe nangunogada.”

Ukuthi lokhu kwenzeka ngosuku lwesithathu futhi abaFarisi bakholelwa ukuthi lokhu kugcwalisiwe kuboniswa ukusabela kwabo. UMathewu 28: 11-15 iqopha izehlakalo: “Lapho besendleleni, bheka! abanye babaqaphi bangena emzini babikela abapristi abakhulu konke okwakwenzekile. I-12 Kwathi emva kwalapho sebehlangene kanye namadoda amadala, babhunga, banika amasotsha inombolo yezinhlamvu zesiliva, bathi: “Yithi, 'Abafundi bakhe bafika ebusuku bameba sisalele.' I-13 Futhi uma lokhu kufika ezindlebeni zombusi, thina sizomncenga futhi sinikhulule ekukhathazekeni. ”I-14 Ngakho-ke bathatha izinhlamvu zesiliva benza njengoba babeyalwe; futhi leli zwi lisakazekele phakathi kwamaJuda kuze kube namuhla. ”  Qaphela: okumangalele ukuthi umzimba webiwe, hhayi ukuthi akazange avuswe ngosuku lwesithathu.

Ngabe le micimbi yaprofethwa?

Isaya 13: 9-14

U-Isaya waprofeta ngosuku lukaJehova oluzayo nalokho okwakuzokwenzeka kungakafiki. Lokhu kuhlobana nezinye iziprofetho, izehlakalo zokufa kukaJesu, kanye nosuku lweNkosi / lukaJehova e-70AD, kanye ne-akhawunti kaPeter ekwiZenzo. U-Isaya wabhala:

“Bheka! Luyeza usuku lukaJehova, luhoshe ngolaka nangolaka oluvuthayo, ukwenza izwe libe yinto eshaqisayo, futhi liqede izoni zezwe kulo.

10 Ngoba izinkanyezi zezulu nemilaza yazo ngeke kukhanye; Ilanga liba mnyama lapho liphuma, Futhi inyanga ngeke ikukhanyisele ukukhanya kwayo.

11 Ngizobiza umhlaba owakhiwe ukuze ubaphendule ngobubi bawo, Nababi ngephutha labo. Ngizokuqeda ukuziqhenya kwabazigabisayo, Ngizithobe ukuzidla kwabaphangi. 12 Ngizokwenza umuntu ofayo abe yindlala kunegolide elicwengiweyo, Futhi abantu bayingcosana kunegolide lase-Ofiri. 13 Kungakho ngizokwenza amazulu athuthumele, Futhi umhlaba uzonyakaziswa uphume endaweni yawo  Ngokufutheka kukaJehova wamabutho ngosuku lwentukuthelo yakhe evuthayo. 14 Njengomzingeli ozingelwe nanjengezimvu ezingenamuntu oziqoqayo, yilowo nalowo ubuyela kubantu bakubo; Ngulowo lalowo uzobalekela ezweni lakhe. ”

U-Amos 8: 9-10

Umprofethi u-Amose wabhala amazwi afanayo ayisiprofetho:

"8 Kule akhawunti izwe liyazamazama, Futhi bonke abakhileyo kuwo bayalila. Akungekhe kuphakame njengeNayile, Kuphakame futhi kume njengeNayile laseGibhithe? '  9 'Ngalolo suku,' kusho iNkosi EnguMbusi uJehova, 'Ngizokwenza ilanga litshone ntambama, Futhi Ngizokwenza mnyama umhlaba ngosuku olukhanyayo. 10 Ngizoshintsha imikhosi yenu ibe isililo nazo zonke izingoma zakho zaba izingoma zokulila. Ngiyakubeka indwangu yamasaka kuyo yonke okhalweni, ngenze wonke amakhanda amakhanda; Ngiyenze ibe njengokukhalela indodana okuwukuphela kwayo, Ukuphela kwalo kube njengosuku olubabayo. '”

UJoel 2: 28-32

“Ngemuva kwalokho ngizothulula umoya wami phezu kwayo yonke inhlobo yenyama, Amadodana akho namadodakazi akho ayoprofeta, amadoda amadala akho ayoaphupha, nezinsizwa zakho zibone imibono. 29 Futhi ngithulula nomoya wami ngalezozinsuku ngalezozinceku zami zesilisa nezincekukazi. 30 Futhi ngizokunika izimangaliso ezulwini nasemhlabeni, Igazi nomlilo nezinsika zentuthu. 31 Ilanga lizaphenduka ubumnyama futhi inyanga ibe yigazi Ngaphambi kokufika kosuku lukaJehova olukhulu nolwesabekayo. 32 Futhi wonke umuntu obiza igama likaJehova uyosindiswa; Ngoba eNtabeni iZiyoni naseJerusalema kuyobakhona abaphunyukayo, njengoba nje uJehova eshilo, Abasindileyo uJehova ababizayo. ”

Ngokusho kweZenzo 2: I-14-24 ingxenye yale ndima evela kuJoweli yagcwaliseka lapho ngePentekosti 33AD:

“UPetro wasukuma nabayishumi nanye wakhuluma kubo [isixuku esasiseJerusalema ngePhentekhosti] ngezwi elikhulu, wathi:“ Madoda aseJudiya nani nonke enakhileyo eJerusalema, makwaziwe lokhu futhi ulalelisise amazwi ami. 15 Lababantu, eqinisweni, abadakiwe, njengoba ucabanga, ngoba yihora lesithathu losuku. 16 Ngokuphambene nalokho, yilokhu okwashiwo ngomprofethi uJoweli: 17 '"Futhi ngezinsuku zokugcina, ”Kusho uNkulunkulu,“ ngiyothululela omunye womoya wami phezu kwayo yonke inhlobo yenyama, namadodana akho namadodakazi akho ayaprofetha, nezinsizwa zakho zibone imibono, amadoda amadala akho aphuphe amaphupho, 18 futhi nasezincekwini zami zesilisa nasezincekwini zami zensikazi ngiyothulula umoya wami ngalezo zinsuku, futhi ziyoprofeta. 19 Futhi Ngizokwenza izimangaliso ezulwini phezulu futhi izibonakaliso emhlabeni ngezansi-Ukubhalwa umlilo nomlilo namafu omusi. 20 Ilanga lizaphenduka ubumnyama futhi inyanga ibe yigazi lungakafiki usuku lukaJehova olukhulu nolukhazimulayo. 21 Futhi wonke umuntu obiza igama likaJehova uyosindiswa. ”' 22 “Madoda akwa-Israyeli, yizwani la mazwi: UJesu umNazaretha wayengumuntu aboniswe kini uNkulunkulu ngemisebenzi yamandla nangezimangaliso nangezibonakaliso uNkulunkulu azenza ngaye phakathi kwenu, njengoba nje nani niyazi. 23 Lo muntu, owanikelwa ngentando nangokwazi kwaNkulunkulu kusengaphambili, wabambelela esigxotsheni ngesandla somuntu ongemthetho, wamqeda naye. ”

Uzoqaphela ukuthi uPhetro ubhekisa kuJesu njengonobangela konke lomcimbi, hhayi nje ukuthululwa kukaMoya oNgcwele, kepha futhi nezimangaliso ezulwini nezibonakaliso emhlabeni. Ngaphandle kwalokho, uPeter ngabe nje akazange acaphune amavesi 30 ne-31 kuJoel 2. AmaJuda alalelayo nawo manje kudingeka abize igama leNkosi neleNkosi uJesu Kristu futhi amukele umyalezo kanye nesiyalo sikaKristu ukuze asindiswe osukwini oluzayo lweNkosi, oluzokwenzeka nge70 AD.

Ukuthi lezi ziprofetho zagcwaliseka yini zonke ngokwenzeka ekufeni kukaJesu noma zisenakho ukwenzeka ngokuzayo esikhathini esizayo asikwazi ukuthi singaba ne-100 iphesenti, kepha kunesibonakaliso esiqinile sokuthi zagcwaliseka ngaleso sikhathi.[Iii]

Izikhombo zomlando ezenziwa ngabalobi be-Extra-Bible

Kunezinkomba eziningi kulezi izehlakalo emibhalweni esetshenziswayo manje ehunyushelwa esiNgisini. Bazokwethulwa nge-oda elilinganisiwe losuku ngamazwana achazayo. Ukuqiniseka okungakanani umuntu akubeka kukho kuyisinqumo somuntu siqu. Kodwa-ke, kuyamangaza impela ukuthi emuva emuva emakhulwini eminyaka okuqala ngemuva kukaJesu kwakukhona ukukholwa ngamaKristu okuqala ngeqiniso lama akhawunti amaVangeli njengoba sinawo namuhla. Kuyiqiniso futhi ukuthi emuva ngaleso sikhathi lapho abaphikisi noma labo bezoba nemibono engafani, bobabili abangewona amaKhristu bangaxabana ngemininingwane. Ngisho nalapho imibhalo ibhekwa njengengabhali usuku lokubhalwa kunikezwa. Bacashunwe njengokuthi akunandaba ukuthi baphefumulelwa yini. Njengomthombo zingabhekwa njengezilingana nenani emithonjeni evamile yababhali-mbali abangamaKristu nabangewona awobuKristu.

UTallus - Umlobi OngamaKristu (Middle 1)st Century, 52 AD)

Amazwi akhe acashunwe ngu

  • UJulius Africanus emlandweni we-221AD woMhlaba. Bheka uJulius Africanus ngezansi.

I-Phlegon of Tralles (Late 1st Century, Century 2nd Century)

Amazwi akhe acashunwe ngu

  • UJulius Africanus (Umlando we-221CE woMhlaba)
  • U-Origen wase-Alexandria
  • I-Pseudo Dionicalous le-Areopagite

phakathi kwabanye.

Ignatius wase-Antiyokiya (Kwasekuqaleni i-2nd Ikhulu leminyaka, imibhalo c. 105AD - c. 115AD)

Kuye 'Incwadi Yama Trallians', Isahluko IX, ubhala:

"Wabethelwa esiphambanweni futhi wafa ngaphansi kukaPontiyu Pilatu. Ngempela, hhayi ngokubukeka nje, wabethelwa esiphambanweni, futhi wafa, phambi kwezidalwa ezisezulwini, nasemhlabeni, nangaphansi komhlaba. Ngalabo abasezulwini ngiqonde ukuthi labo abanemvelo engeyona into; yilabo abasemhlabeni, amaJuda kanye namaRoma, kanye nabantu ababekhona ngaleso sikhathi lapho iNkosi ibethelwa esiphambanweni; nangalabo abangaphansi komhlaba, isixuku esivukile kanye neNkosi. Ngoba umbhalo uthi:Imizimba eminingi yabangcwele abalele yavuka, " amathuna abo ayavulwa. Wehla impela, wangena eHayidese eyedwa, kepha wasukuma ehamba nesixuku; futhi qasha uphume ngalezo zindlela zokwehlukanisa eyayikhona kwasekuqaleni komhlaba, yaphonsa udonga lwayo lokuhlukanisa. Wabuye wavuka ngezinsuku ezintathu, uYise emvusa; futhi emva kokuchitha izinsuku ezingamashumi amane nabaphostoli, Wamukelwa kuBaba, futhi “wahlala ngakwesokunene Sakhe, elindele ukuthi izitha zakhe zibekwe phansi kwezinyawo Zakhe.” Ngosuku lokulungiselela, kwathi ngehora lesithathu, Wathola isigwebo kuPilatu, uYise evumela lokho ukuthi kwenzeke; Ngehora lesithupha wabethelwa esiphambanweni; ngehora lesishiyagalolunye wakhipha umoya; futhi ngaphambi kokushona kwelanga wangcwatshwa. Ngesikhathi seSabatha waqhubeka phansi komhlaba ethuneni uJosefa wase-Arimathaya ayembeke kulo. Ekuseni kosuku lweNkosi Wavuka kwabafileyo, ngokwalokho okwakhulunywa nguYe uqobo, “Njengokuba uJona wayesesiswini somkhomo izinsuku ezintathu nobusuku obuthathu, kanjalo neNdodana yomuntu iyakuba sebusuku izinsuku ezintathu nobusuku obuthathu inhliziyo yomhlaba. ” Ngakho-ke usuku lokulungiselela luqukethe uthando; iSabatha lihlanganisa ukungcwatshwa; uSuku lweNkosi luqukethe uvuko. ” [Iv]

UJustin Martyr - UChristian Apologist (Middle 2nd UCentury, ushone e165AD eRoma)

'Ukuxolisa Kwakhe Kokuqala', okubhalwe nge156AD, kuqukethe okulandelayo:

  • Kusahluko 13 uthi:

“Uthisha wethu ngalezi zinto nguJesu Kristu, naye owazalelwa le njongo wabethelwa esiphambanweni ngaphansi kukaPontiyu Pilatu, umbusi waseJudæa, ngezikhathi zikaTiberius Cæsar; nokuthi simkhonza ngokufanele, njengoba sesifundile ukuthi uyiNdodana kaNkulunkulu weqiniso uqobo, futhi siyibambe endaweni yesibili, noMoya wesiprofetho uzokubonisa, ”.

  • Isahluko 34

"Manje kukhona ezweni ezweni lamaJuda, ama-stadia angamashumi amathathu nanhlanu avela eJerusalema, [IBhetlehema] lapho uJesu Kristu azalelwa khona, njengoba ungathola futhi kumarejista wokukhokhiswa kwemali okwenziwa ngaphansi kukaCyrenius, umbusi wakho wokuqala eJudæa. ”

  • Isahluko 35

“Futhi emva kokuba ebethelwe esiphambanweni benza inkatho ngesambatho saKhe, futhi labo ababembethela bahlukanisa phakathi kwabo. Futhi ukuthi lezi zinto zenzekile, ungathola kusuka Izenzo zikaPontiyu Pilatu. " [V]

 Izenzo zikaPilatu (4th Ikhophi yekhulu, ekhonjiwe ku-2nd Iminyaka Ngekhulu likaJustin Martyr)

Kusuka encwadini yeZenzo zikaPilatu, uFomu Wokuqala WamaGrikhi (njengowakudala, hhayi omdala kune-4th century AD), kodwa umsebenzi waleli gama, 'Izenzo zikaPontius Pilatu', ukhulunywa ngaye nguJustin Martyr, I Apology. Isahluko 35, 48, maphakathi ne-2nd century AD. Lokhu kungukuzivikela kwakhe phambi koMbusi, owayengeke akwazi ukuhlola lezi zenzo zikaPontiyu Pilatu uqobo. Le 4th ikhophi lekhulu-ke lapho kungenzeka libe langempela, kungenzeka ukuthi kuyasebenza kabusha noma ukunwebeka kwangaphambilini, okubalulekile kwangempela:

"Futhi ngesikhathi abethelwa esiphambanweni kwaba khona ubumnyama emhlabeni wonke, ilanga laba mnyama phakathi nosuku, nezinkanyezi zibonakala, kepha kubo akubonakalanga kubo; futhi inyanga, ngokungathi iphenduka igazi, yehluleka ukukhanya kwayo. Umhlaba wagwinywa yizifunda ezingezansi, ukuze indawo engcwele yethempeli, njengoba beyibiza kanjalo, ingabonwa amaJuda ekuweni kwabo; futhi babona ngezansi kwabo umsuka womhlaba, ngomsindo wokuduma kwezulu owawa phezu kwalo. Futhi kulolo luvalo Kwafa abantu abakade bevukile, njengoba amaJuda uqobo efakaza; futhi bathi kwakungu-Abrahama, no-Isaka, noJakobe, nokhokho abayishumi nambili, noMose noJobe, ababeshonile, njengoba besho, eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane ezintathu namakhulu amahlanu edlule. Futhi kwakukhona abaningi kakhulu engabona nabo bebonakala emzimbeni; futhi babenza isililo ngamaJuda, ngenxa yobubi obabenzekile ngabo, nokubhujiswa kwamaJuda nangomthetho wawo. Futhi ukwesaba ukuzamazama komhlaba kwahlala kusukela ngehora lesithupha lokulungiselela kuze kube yihora lesishiyagalolunye. "[vi]

UTertullian - uMbhishobhi wase-Antiyokiya (Ekuqaleni kwe-3rd Ikhulu leminyaka, c. 155AD - c. 240AD)

UTertullian ubhale ku-Apology yakhe nge-AD 197:

Isahluko XXI (Isahluko 21 par 2): “Esesibethelwe esiphambanweni, uKristu wakhombisa izibonakaliso eziningi eziphawuleka, okwathi ukwahlukaniswa kwakhe nokufa kwahlukaniswa kubo bonke abanye. Ngokwenkululeko yakhe yokuzikhethela, yena ngezwi waxoshwa kuye umoya wakhe, elindele umsebenzi wokubulawa. Ngalo lelo hora, ukukhanya kosuku kwahoxiswa, lapho ilanga ngaleso sikhathi lase likilo meridi umlilo. Labo ababengazi ukuthi lokhu kwakubikezelwe ngoKristu, akungabazeki ukuthi babecabanga ukuthi kwakuwukukhanya kwelanga. Kepha, lokhu onakho ezinqolobaneni zakho, ungakufunda lapho. ”[vii]

Lokhu kukhombisa ukuthi bekukhona amarekhodi asesidlangalaleni ngaleso sikhathi aqinisekisa imicimbi.

Ubuye wabhala wabhala 'ngokumelene noMarcion' Book IV Isahluko 42:

“Uma uyithatha njengempango kaKristu wakho wamanga, namanje lonke iHubo (linxephezela) ingubo kaKristu. Kepha, bheka, zona kanye izakhi ziyazamazama. Ngoba iNkosi yabo yayihlupheka. Ukube-ke, bekuyisitha sabo okwenziwe kubo konke lokhu kulimala, izulu belizokhanya ngokukhanya, ilanga beliyobe likhazimula ngokwengeziwe, futhi usuku beluzolulisa inkambo yalo - ngokubuka ngenjabulo uKristu kaMarcion omisiwe i-gibbet! Lobu bufakazi ngabe busangifanele, noma ngabe bekungeyona indaba yokuphrofethwa. U-Isaya uthi: “Ngizokwembathisa amazulu ngobumnyama.” Lolu kuzoba usuku u-Amose abhala ngalo: “Kuyakuthi ngalolo suku,” usho uJehova, “lishone emini ilanga bese umhlaba uba mnyama ngosuku olucwathile.” (Emini) iveli lethempeli laklebhuka ”” [viii]

Ngokuqondile uyakuvuma ukukholelwa kwakhe eqinisweni lokuthi izehlakalo zenzeka ngokuthi athi lezo zenzeko bezizokwenele ukuba akholelwe kuKristu, nokho akuzange kwenzeke lezi zigameko kuphela, kukhona neqiniso lokuthi kwaprofethwa ngalo.

U-Irenaeus umfundi kaPolycarp (200AD?)

Ku- 'Against Heresies - Book 4.34.3 - Proof against the Marcionites, ukuthi abaProfetho bakusho kuzo zonke izibikezelo zabo ku-Christ' u-Irenaeus ubhala:

“Futhi amaphuzu ahlobene nentshiseko yeNkosi, eyayibikezelwe, awatholakalanga elinye icala. Ngoba akwenzekanga nasekufeni kwanoma yimuphi umuntu phakathi kwabadala ukuthi ilanga selishonile phakathi nosuku, futhiveliveli yethempeli ayisiqashanga, umhlaba awuzanyazanyiswa, noma amadwala awadilizwanga, noma ofile akavuki , futhi akekho noyedwa kulaba bantu [wasendulo] owavuswa ngosuku lwesithathu, futhi akamukelwanga ezulwini, noma amazulu akhe awavulekanga, nezizwe zazingakholelwa egameni lomunye umuntu; futhi akekho noyedwa phakathi kwabo, owayefile futhi evuka futhi, owavula isivumelwano esisha senkululeko. Ngakho-ke abaprofethi kabakhulumanga ngomunye umuntu kepha ngeNkosi, lawo onke la mathokheni ashiwo ngaphambili avumelana. [U-Irenaeus: U-Adv. Haer. 4.34.3] ” [ix]

UJulius Africanus (Ekuqaleni kwe-3rd I-Century, i-160AD - 240AD) Isazi-mlando sobuKristu

UJulius Africanus ubhala ngaphakathi 'Umlando Womhlaba' ezungeze i-221AD.

Kusahluko 18:

“(XVIII) Ezimweni Ezixhunywe Nenkanuko Yomsindisi Wethu kanye Nokuvuka Kwakhe Okunikeza Ukuphila.

  1. Ngokuqondene nemisebenzi Yakhe ngokwehlukana, nokwelashwa Kwakhe okwenziwe emzimbeni nasemphefumulweni, nezimfihlakalo zemfundiso Yakhe, kanye nokuvuka kwabafileyo, lezi zimiselwe ngokwasemthethweni ngabafundi Bakhe nabaphostoli ngaphambi kwethu. Emhlabeni wonke bacindezela ubumnyama obesabeka kakhulu; futhi amadwala aqothulwa ngokuzamazama komhlaba, futhi izindawo eziningi eJudiya nakwezinye izifunda zaphonswa phansi. Lokhu ubumnyama Thallus, encwadini yesithathu yomlando wakhe, ubiza, njengoba kubonakala kimi ngaphandle kwesizathu, ukusitheka kwelanga. Ngoba amaHeberu agubha iphasika ngosuku lwe-14 ngokwenyanga, futhi uthando lukaMsindisi wethu lwehluleka ngosuku olwandulela iphasika; kepha ukusithwa kwelanga kwenzeka kuphela lapho inyanga ingena ngaphansi kwelanga. Futhi akunakwenzeka nganoma yisiphi esinye isikhathi kepha esikhaleni esiphakathi kosuku lokuqala lokuthwasa kwenyanga kanye nolokugcina lwenyanga endala, okungukuthi, ekuhlanganeni kwabo: kungenzeka kanjani ukuthi ukusithwa kwelanga kwenzeke lapho inyanga icishe yahluke ngokuphelele ilanga? Vumela lowo mbono udlule kodwa; mayithwale iningi ngayo; futhi lesi sibonakaliso somhlaba masithathwe njengokufiphala kwelanga, njengabanye isibonakaliso esweni kuphela.48) " [X]

Bese kulandela ukuthi:

 "(48) I-Phlegon iqopha ukuthi, ngesikhathi sikaTiberius Kesari, Ngenyanga egcwele, kwaba nokukhanya kwelanga okugcwele kusukela ngehora lesithupha kuze kube ngelesishiyagalolunye-Kubonakele lokho esikhuluma ngakho. Kepha yini okufana nokusitheka kwelanga ngokufana ne ukuzamazama komhlaba, amadwala ahumayo, futhi ukuvuka kwabafileyo, kanye nentuthuko enhle kangaka endaweni yonke? Impela awukho umcimbi onjengalokhu orekhodwa isikhathi eside. Kepha kwakubumnyama obudonswa nguNkulunkulu, ngoba kwenzeka ukuthi iNkosi ihlupheke ngaleso sikhathi. Ukubalwa kukwenza kucace ukuthi isikhathi samasonto e-70, njengoba kuphawulwe kuDaniel, sesiphelile ngalesi sikhathi. " [xi]

U-Origen wase-Alexandria (Ekuqaleni kwe-3rd Century, 185AD - 254AD)

U-Origen wayengumfundi weSilo samaGrikhi kanye noChristian Theologian. Ukholelwe ukuthi amahedeni achaza ubumnyama njengokukhanya kwelanga nokuzama ukudelela amaVangeli.

In 'U-Origen ubhekene neCelsus', 2. Isahluko 33 (xxxiii):

 "yize sikwazi ukukhombisa isimilo esimangazayo nesisimangaliso sezehlakalo ezehlela Yena, kodwa yimuphi omunye umthombo esinganikeza impendulo kuwo ngaphandle kokulandisa kwamaVangeli, athi “kwaba nokuzamazama komhlaba, nokuthi amadwala ahlukana phakathi , namathuna avuleka, umgubuzelo wethempeli wadabuka kabili ukusuka phezulu kuye phansi, futhi lobo bumnyama banqoba ngezikhathi zasemini, ilanga lehluleka ukukhanyisa? ” [3290] ”

“[3292] Ngokuqondene ne ukusitheka kwelanga ngesikhathi sikaTiberius Cæsar, ekubusweni kwakhe uJesu kubonakala sengathi wabethelwa esiphambanweni, kanye ukuzamazama komhlaba okukhulu okwabe sekwenzeka, Phlegon futhi, ngicabanga ukuthi, ubhale encwadini yeshumi nantathu noma yeshumi nane yeziKronike zakhe. ” [3293] ” [xii]

In 'U-Origen ngokumelene noCelsus ', 2. Isahluko 59 (lix):

“Ucabanga nokuthi zombili ukuzamazama komhlaba nobumnyama kwakuyinto yokusungulwa; [3351] kodwa maqondana nalokhu, sinamakhasi angaphambilini, sizivikele, ngokwamandla ethu, singeza ubufakazi Phlegon, olandisa ukuthi lezi zehlakalo zenzeka ngesikhathi uMsindisi wethu ahlupheka. [3352] ” [xiii]

I-Eusebius (Late 3)rd , Kuqala i-4th I-Century, i-263AD - 339AD) (isazi-mlando saseConstantine)

Cishe nge-315AD wabhala kuyo Demonstratio Evangelica (Ubufakazi beVangeli) Incwadi 8:

“Futhi lolu suku, uthi, belwaziwa yiNkosi, futhi bekungebona ubusuku. Kwakungeyona imini, ngoba, njengoba sekushiwo vele, “ngeke kube khona ukukhanya”; okwagcwaliseka, lapho “kusukela ngehora lesithupha kwaba khona ubumnyama emhlabeni wonke kwaze kwaba yihora lesishiyagalolunye.” Futhi kwakungebobusuku, ngoba "kusihlwa kuzokhanya" okwengeziwe, okwabuye kwagcwaliseka lapho usuku luphinde lukhanya ngokwemvelo ngemuva kwehora lesishiyagalolunye. ”[xiv]

U-Arnobius weSicca (Kwasekuqaleni i-4th I-Century, i-330AD ifile)

Ku-Contra Gentes I. 53 wabhala:

"Kepha kwathi, esakhululwa emzimbeni, amthwala [uJesu] wahamba naye engxenyeni encane kakhulu yaKho [lapho Efa esiphambanweni], wazivumela ukuba abonakale, futhi makwazeke ukuthi mkhulu kangakanani, zonke izinto zomkhathi zididekile ngezehlakalo ezingajwayelekile zaphazamiseka. Ukuzamazama komhlaba wanyakazisa umhlaba, ulwandle lwakhuphuka ekujuleni kwalo, izulu lalimbozwe ubumnyama, lo kwavutha amalangabi omlilo welanga, ukushisa kwakhe kwaba ngokulingana; Ngoba yini enye engenzeka lapho kutholakala ukuthi nguNkulunkulu owabizwa omunye wethu? [xv]

Imfundiso ka-Addaeus Umphostoli (4th Ngekhulu?)

Lokhu kubhala bekukhona ekuqaleni kwe-5th I-Century, futhi iqondwe ukuthi ibhalwe kwi-4th Ikhulu.

Ukuhunyushwa kwesiNgisi kuyatholakala ku-p1836 ye-Anti-Nicene Fathers Book 8. Lokhu kubhala kuthi:

“Inkosi u-Abgar kwiNkosi yethu uTiberius Cæsar: Yize ngazi ukuthi akukho lutho olufihliwe Nkosi, ngibhalela ukwazisa ukwesatshiswa kwakho nobukhosi bakho obunamandla amaJuda angaphansi kwawo Ubukhosi bakho futhi bahlala ezweni lasePalestine babuthana ndawonye futhi wabethela uKristu esiphambanweni, ngaphandle kwecala kufanelekile ngokufa, emva kokuba enze phambi kwabo izibonakaliso nezimangaliso, futhi wayekhombise imisebenzi yamandla yamandla, waze wavusa nabafileyo empilweni kubo; kwathi ngesikhathi bembethela esiphambanweni ilanga laba mnyama futhi Umhlaba wazamazama, futhi zonke izinto zidala zathuthumela futhi zathuthumela, futhi, kwaba ngathi, ngokwazo, lesi senzo yonke indalo nabakhileyo kwindalo bayashwabana. ”[xvi]

ICassiodorus (6th Ikhulu)

Cassiodorus, umlobi ongumlando ongumKristu, fl. I-6th century AD, iqinisekisa isimo esiyingqayizivele sokusitheka kwelanga: Cassiodorus, Chronicon (Patrologia Latina, v. 69) “… INkosi yethu uJesu Kristu yahlupheka (ukubethelwa)… nokusitheka kwelanga [lit. ukwehluleka, ukushiywa] kwelanga kwaba yinto engakaze ibonwe ngaphambili noma kusukela lapho. ”

Kuhunyushwe kusuka esiLatin: “… Dominus noster Jesus Christus passus est… et defectio solis facta est, qualis ante vel postmodum nunquam fuit.”] [xvii]

I-Pseudo Dionysius le-Areopagite (5th & 6th imibhalo yasendulo abathi inguDionysius waseKorinto weZenzo 17)

UPseudo Dionysius uchaza ubumnyama ngesikhathi sokubethelwa kukaJesu, njengoba kwabonakala eGibhithe, futhi kuqoshwa nguPhlegon.[xviii]

Ku- 'LETTER XI. I-Dionysius to Apollophanes, Philosopher 'ithi:

"Njani, ngokwesibonelo, ngenkathi sihlala eHeliopolis (ngaleso sikhathi ngangineminyaka engamashumi amabili nanhlanu, futhi iminyaka yakho yayicishe ifane neyami), ngosuku oluthile lwesithupha, futhi cishe ngehora lesithupha, ilanga, samangala , yafihlwa, ngokudlula kwenyanga phezu kwayo, hhayi ngoba ingunkulunkulu, kepha ngenxa yokuthi isidalwa sikaNkulunkulu, lapho ukukhanya kwaso kwangempela kwakuhlala, sasingakwazi ukubekezelela ukukhanya. Ngibe sengikubuza ngobuqotho ukuthi wena muntu ohlakaniphe kakhulu ucabangani ngakho. Wena-ke, unikeze impendulo efana naleyo ebisalokhu igxilile engqondweni yami, nokuthi akukho okukhohlwayo, ngisho nokwesithombe sokufa, okuke kwavunyelwa ukuphunyuka. Ngoba, lapho i-orb yonke yayenziwe mnyama, ngenkungu emnyama, futhi idiski yelanga lase liqale futhi ukuhlanzwa nokukhanya kabusha, bese sithatha itafula likaFiliphu Aridaeus, futhi sicabanga ngama-orbs ezulu, safunda , okwakwaziwa ngenye indlela, ukuthi ukusithwa kwelanga kwakungeke kwenzeke, ngaleso sikhathi. Okulandelayo, sabona ukuthi inyanga yayisondela elangeni isuka empumalanga, futhi yabamba imisebe yayo, yaze yayimboza yonke; kanti, ngezinye izikhathi, yayijwayele ukusukela entshonalanga. Okunye futhi, sazi ukuthi lapho selufinyelele emaphethelweni elanga kakhulu, futhi selimboze wonke umzila, lwabe selubuyela emuva ngasempumalanga, noma leso kwakuyisikhathi esasingabizi ukuba khona kwenyanga, noma ukuhlangana kwelanga. Ngakho-ke mina, mgcinimafa wezemfundo eninginingi, njengoba bengingakwazi ukuqonda imfihlakalo engaka, ngikubize kanjalo - “Ucabangani ngale nto, ma-Apollophanes, isibuko semfundo?” "Yiziphi izimfihlakalo lezi zibonakaliso ongazijwayele ezibonakala ziyizinkomba kuzo?" Wena-ke, ngezindebe eziphefumulelwe, kunokuba ukhulume ngezwi lomuntu, "Lezi, Dionysius omuhle kakhulu," ushilo, "ushintsho lwezinto zaphezulu." Ekugcineni, lapho senginakile usuku nonyaka, futhi ngaqonda ukuthi, ngaleso sikhathi, ngezimpawu zalo zobufakazi, wavumelana nalokho uPawulu amemezela kimi, kanye lapho ngangilenga ezindebeni zakhe, ngabe senginikeza isandla sami eqinisweni, futhi wakhipha izinyawo zami emathangeni enephutha. " [xix]

Kwi-Letter VII, isigaba se-3 Dionysius esiya kwiPolycarp sithi:

"Yisho kuye, nokho," Uqinisekisa ini ngokusitheka kwelanga, okwenzeka ngesikhathi sesiphambano esisindisayo [83] ? ” Kithina sobabili ngaleso sikhathi, eHeliopolis, ukuba khona, nokuma ndawonye, ​​sabona inyanga isondela elangeni, samangala (ngoba bekungakabi isikhathi esimisiwe sokuhlangana); futhi, futhi, kusukela ngehora lesishiyagalolunye kuya kusihlwa, kubuyiselwa ngamandla angaphezu kwawemvelo futhi kulayini obhekene nelanga. Futhi umkhumbuze ngokunye okuqhubekayo. Ngoba uyazi ukuthi sabona, samangala ukuthi ukuxhumana uqobo kusuka empumalanga, nokuya emaphethelweni ediski yelanga, bese kubuyela emuva, futhi, futhi, ukuxhumana nokuvulwa kabusha [84] , hhayi okwenzeka endaweni eqondile, kepha kusuka kulokho okuphambene ne-diametrically. Izinto ezinkulu kakhulu zemvelo zaleso sikhathi esimisiwe, futhi kungenzeka kuKristu kuphela, Imbangela yazo zonke, Lowo owenza izinto ezinkulu nezimangalisayo, ezingenakubalwa kuzo. ”[xx]

UJohannes Philophonos aka. UPhilopon, Isazi-mlando sase-Alexandria (AD490-570) umChristian Neo-Platonist

Uyacelwa uqaphele: Angikwazanga ukuthola i-English Translation yokuqala, noma ngifinyelele futhi nginikeze ireferensi enguqulweni ye-inthanethi ye-German Translation yokuqinisekisa lokhu kucaphuna. Isethenjwa esinikezwe ekugcineni kwalesi sicaphuki siyingxenye yenguqulo endala kakhulu yesiGreek \ Latin manje ku-pdf online.

Kubhekiswe kukho ngesifinyezo esilandelayo esitholakala ku-inthanethi, bheka amakhasi e-pdf 3 & 4, incwadi yokuqala yencwadi ethi 214,215.[xxi]

UPhilopon, umChristian Neo-Platonist, uk. I-6th century AD (De Mundi Creatione, ed. Corderius, 1630, II. 21, iphe. 88) ibhale kanjena maqondana nezehlakalo ezimbili ezishiwo ngumlobi waseRoma wekhulu lesibili uPhlegon, "omkhulu kunhlobo lohlobo olungaziwa ngaphambilini, " ku-Phlegon'sU-2nd unyaka we-202nd Olympiad,"Oku ngu-AD 30 / 31, elinye"omkhulu kunhlobo lonke owaziwayo ngaphambili,"Obewubumnyama obungaphezu kwemvelo obuhambisana nokuthuthumela komhlaba, kuPhlegon"U-4th unyaka we-202nd Olympiad,”I-AD 33.

I-akhawunti kaPhilopon ifundeka kanjena: "UPhlegon futhi kuma-Olmpiads wakhe ukhuluma ngalobu bumnyama [bebethelwa esiphambanweni], noma kunalokho ngalobu busuku: ngokuba uthi, 'Ukushona kwelanga ngomnyaka wesibili we-202nd Olympiad [ehlobo AD 30 ehlobo AD 31] ehlobo AD ngaphandle kokukhulu kunhlobo lohlobo olungaziwa ngaphambili; kwafika ubusuku ngehora lesithupha losuku [lwasemini]; kangangokuba izinkanyezi zabonakala esibhakabhakeni. ' Manje ukuthi uFilegon ubuye futhi akhulume ngokusitheka kwelanga njengesehlakalo esenzeka lapho uKristu wabekwa esiphambanweni, hhayi omunye omunye: Kuyabonakala, ngoba uthi ukusitheka okunjalo kwakungaziwa ezikhathini ezedlule; ngoba yinye kuphela indlela yemvelo yokushona kwelanga: ngoba ukukhanya kwelanga okuvamile kwenzeka kuphela lapho kuhlangana izinkanyiso ezimbili: kepha umcimbi ngesikhathi sikaKristu iNkosi wadlula enyangeni egcwele; okungenakwenzeka ngokulandelana kwezinto kwezinto. Futhi kwezinye izikhathi zokukhanya kwelanga, yize ilanga selishonile, liyaqhubeka ngaphandle kokukhanya isikhathi esincane kakhulu: futhi ngasikhathi sinye manje liqala ukuzicoca futhi. Kepha ngesikhathi seNkosi uJesu umkhathi uqhubeke ngokuphelele ngaphandle kokukhanya kusukela ngehora lesithupha kuze kube selesishiyagalolunye. Into efanayo ifakazelwa futhi emlandweni kaTiberius Kesari: Ngoba uPhlegon uthi, ukuthi waqala ukubusa ngonyaka we-2nd we-198th Olympiad [ehlobo AD 14 kuya ehlobo AD 15]; kodwa ukuthi ngonyaka we-4th we-202nd Olympiad [ihlobo le-AD 32 kuya ehlobo AD 33] ukusitheka kwelanga kwase kwenzekile: ukuze kuthi uma sibala kusukela ekuqaleni kokubusa kukaTiberius, ngonyaka we-4th we-202nd Olympiad, lapho isondele iminyaka ye-19 eyanele: ie I-3 ye-198th Olympiad ne-16 yabanye abane, futhi yile ndlela uLuka akuloba ngayo kumaVangeli. Ngonyaka we-15th wokubusa kukaTiberius [AD 29], lapho elandisa, ukushunyayelwa kukaJohane uMbhabhadisi kwase kuqalile, lapho kwaqala khona inkonzo yeVangeli loMsindisi. Lokho kwaqhubeka isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka emine, njengoba u-Eusebius ekhombisa eNcwadini Yokuqala Yomlando wakhe we-Orthodoxastical, eqoqa lokhu kwi-Antiquities kaJosephus. Ubudlelwano bakhe baqala ngo-Anase umpristi ophakeme, futhi kwaba nabanye abapristi abakhulu abathathu emva kwakhe (isikhathi sokuba umpristi omkhulu ngamunye abe unyaka owodwa), kwabe sekuphetha ngokufakwa kompristi omkhulu obalandelayo, uKayafase, e- isikhathi uKristu abethelwa ngaso. Lowo nyaka kwakuyi-19th yokubusa kukaTiberius Khesari [AD 33]; ngaphakathi lapho ukubethelwa kukaJesu Kristu, ukuze kusindiswe umhlaba, kwenzeka; futhi nakulolo luxhumano ukwambula kokukhanya kokukhanya kwelanga okumangazayo, okungafani nemvelo yayo, indlela uDionysius the Areopag akubeka ngayo phansi encwadini yakhe eya kuBishop Polycarp. ”kanye no-ibid., III. I-9, k. I-116: "Ngakho-ke umcimbi wokubethelwa kukaJesu Kristu, owamandla angaphezu kwawemvelo, kwakuwukukhanya kwelanga okugcwele lapho inyanga igcwele: uPhlegon naye ukhuluma ngaye kuma-Olimpiyadi akhe, njengoba sesibhale encwadini eyandulele. [xxii]

IVangeli likaPetru - Ukubhala kwe-Apocrypha, (8 - 9th Ikhophi yekhulu le-2nd Ngekhulu?)

Isiqephu esikhulu salokhu Apocryphal, iDocetic, iVangeli esenzeka ku-8th Noma i-9th ICentury yatholakala e-Akmim (Panopolis) eGibhithe e1886.

Ingxenye ecashuniwe ikhuluma ngezinto ezenzeka kusukela ngesikhathi sokubethelwa kukaJesu.

Ngasekupheleni kwekhulu lesibili AD emibhalweni ka-Eusebius emlandweni wakhe. UmSh. VI. xii. I-2-6, lo msebenzi weVangeli likaPeter kuthiwa ukhulunywa ngokungathandeki kweSerapion yase-Antiyokiya futhi uhleliwe phakathi nesiqingatha maphakathi noma ekuqaleni kwalelo khulu leminyaka. Ngakho-ke mhlawumbe kungubufakazi bokuqala emasikweni akhona emibuthanweni yamaKristu ekhulu lesibili maqondana nezehlakalo ezenzeka ekufeni kukaJesu.

”5. Futhi kwaba ntambama, kwaba mnyama ubusika kulo lonke iJudiya. [bona [abaholi bamaJuda] bakhathazeka bekhathazekile, hleze ilanga selishonile, ngenkathi [uJesu] esaphila, [ngoba kulotshelwe bona, ukuthi ilanga lingamshonanga lowo obulewe . Futhi omunye wabo wathi, Mnike inyongo ngeviniga. Futhi baxubha bamnika ukuthi aphuze, futhi bagcwalisa zonke izinto, futhi bagcwalisa izono zabo ngamakhanda abo. Abaningi baqhubeka behamba ngamalambu, becabanga ukuthi kusebusuku, bawela phansi. INkosi yamemeza yathi: “Mandla ami, mandla ami, ungishiyile. Futhi lapho eseshilo wakhuphuka. Futhi kulokho ihora kwesihenqo sethempeli laseJerusalema sadatshulwa kabili. I-6. Futhi base bekhipha izipikili ezandleni zeNkosi, bayibeka emhlabeni, futhi umhlaba wazamazama, futhi kwavela ukwesaba okukhulu. Lapho-ke ilanga lakhanya, kwatholakala ihora lesishiyagalolunye: AmaJuda ajabula, anika uJosefa isidumbu sakhe ukuba asingcwabe, ngokuba wayebonile okuhle akwenzileyo. Wayesethatha iNkosi, wamgeza, wamgoqa ngendwangu yelineni, wamngenisa ethuneni lakhe, elibizwa ngokuthi yiNgadi KaJosefa.[xxiii]

Isiphetho

Ekuqaleni saphakamisa imibuzo elandelayo.

  • Ngabe zenzeka ngempela?
    • Abaphikisi bokuqala bazame ukuchaza izehlakalo njengezemvelo, kunokuba zingezemvelo, bakwemukela ngokuphelele ubuqiniso bezehlakalo ezenzeka.
  • Ingabe zazingokwemvelo noma zivela emvelweni?
    • Kungukuphikisana kombhali ukuthi babefanele babe ngaphezu kwemvelo, bemvelo yaphezulu. Akunasigameko esaziwayo esenzeka ngokwemvelo esingase silande ukulandelana okuthile nobude bemicimbi ethile. Kukhona ukuhlangana okuningi kakhulu ngesikhathi.
    • Imicimbi yaprofethwa u-Isaya, u-Amose noJoweli. Ukuqala kokugcwaliseka kukaJoweli kuqinisekiswa ngumphostoli uPeter kuzEnzo.
  • Ingabe bukhona ubufakazi obengeziwe obusebhayibhelini ngokwenzeka kwabo?
    • Kukhona ababhali bokuqala bobuKristu, bayaziwa futhi bangaqinisekiseka.
    • Kukhona abalobi be-apocrypha abathi nazo zivume lezi zehlakalo.

 

Kunokufakazelwa okuhle kokwezehlakalo zokufa kukaJesu okubhalwe emaVangelini kusuka kwabanye ababhali bokuqala abangamaKristu, abanye ababhekisa kubo ubufakazi bokuthi umbhali ongeyena umKristu noma uphikisana nalezo izehlakalo. Kanye nemibhalo ebhekwe njenge-apocryphal, evumelana ngokumangalisayo ngezehlakalo zokufa kukaJesu, lapho kwezinye izindawo ngezinye izikhathi besuka ngokungafani emaVangelini.

Ukuhlolwa kwezigameko nemibhalo engokomlando ngazo futhi kukhomba ukubaluleka kokholo. Bekulokhu kukhona labo abangakwazi ukwamukela ukuthi izehlakalo ezinjalo ezilotshwe eBhayibhelini futhi ikakhulukazi emaVangelini ziyiqiniso, ngoba abafuni ukwamukela ukuthi ukuvela kwazo kuyiqiniso. Ngokufanayo, namuhla. Kodwa-ke, ngokubona komlobi (futhi sethemba ngokubona kwakho), leli cala lifakazelwa ngale ndlela 'kokungabaza okufanele' kubantu abanengqondo futhi ngenkathi lezi zehlakalo zenzeka cishe eminyakeni ye-2000 edlule, singakholelwa kuzo. Mhlawumbe umbuzo obaluleke kunayo yonke, ingabe siyafuna? Futhi ingabe sikulungele ukukhombisa ukuthi sinalo ukholo?

_______________________________________________________________

[i] Bona le nguob eBelarus, kepha uzokwazi ukuthi ubumnyama abuthathe isikhathi esingeqile kwimizuzu ye-3-4.  https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3043071/The-storm-turned-day-night-Watch-darkness-descend-city-Belarus-apocalyptic-weather-hits.html

[Ii] I-1 intshi ilingana ne-2.54 cm.

[Iii] Bheka isihloko esihlukile esithi “Usuku lweNkosi noma uSuku lukaJehova, Luphi?”

[Iv] http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/ignatius-trallians-longer.html

[V] https://www.biblestudytools.com/history/early-church-fathers/ante-nicene/vol-1-apostolic-with-justin-martyr-irenaeus/justin-martyr/first-apology-of-justin.html

[vi] https://biblehub.com/library/unknown/the_letter_of_pontius_pilate_concerning_our_lord_jesus_christ/the_letter_of_pontius_pilate.htm

[vii] https://biblehub.com/library/tertullian/apology/chapter_xxi_but_having_asserted.htm

[viii] https://biblehub.com/library/tertullian/the_five_books_against_marcion/chapter_xlii_other_incidents_of_the.htm

[ix] https://biblehub.com/library/irenaeus/against_heresies/chapter_xxxiv_proof_against_the_marcionites.htm

[X] https://www.biblestudytools.com/history/early-church-fathers/ante-nicene/vol-6-third-century/julius-africanus/iii-extant-fragments-five-books-chronography-of-julius-africanus.html

[xi] https://biblehub.com/library/africanus/the_writings_of_julius_africanus/fragment_xviii_on_the_circumstances.htm

[xii] https://biblehub.com/library/origen/origen_against_celsus/chapter_xxxiii_but_continues_celsus.htm

[xiii] https://biblehub.com/library/origen/origen_against_celsus/chapter_lix_he_imagines_also.htm

[xiv] http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/eusebius_de_08_book6.htm

[xv] http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf06.xii.iii.i.liii.html

[xvi] p1836 AntiNicene Fathers Book 8,  http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf08.html

[xvii] http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/02m/0485-0585,_Cassiodorus_Vivariensis_Abbas,_Chronicum_Ad_Theodorum_Regem,_MLT.pdf  Bheka ikhasi 8 lekholomu ye-pdf righthand eduze kwedolobha C ngombhalo wesiLatin.

[xviii] https://biblehub.com/library/dionysius/mystic_theology/preface_to_the_letters_of.htm

[xix] https://biblehub.com/library/dionysius/letters_of_dionysius_the_areopagite/letter_xi_dionysius_to_apollophanes.htm

http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/areopagite_08_letters.htm

[xx] https://biblehub.com/library/dionysius/letters_of_dionysius_the_areopagite/letter_vii.htm

[xxi] https://publications.mi.byu.edu/publications/bookchapters/Bountiful_Harvest_Essays_in_Honor_of_S_Kent_Brown/BountifulHarvest-MacCoull.pdf

[xxii] https://ia902704.us.archive.org/4/items/joannisphiliponi00philuoft/joannisphiliponi00philuoft.pdf

[xxiii] https://biblehub.com/library/unknown/the_letter_of_pontius_pilate_concerning_our_lord_jesus_christ/the_letter_of_pontius_pilate.htm

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