Ngabe amaKhristu akuqala ayenethemba lokuvuselwa emhlabeni noma ukuvuselwa ezulwini?

Kwabhalwa Imibhalo YamaKristu Okuqala.

Izihloko eziyisithupha zokuqala kulolu chungechunge lwesihloko esithi “Ithemba Lesintu Ngekusasa. Izoba kuphi? ” ubuyekeze ubufakazi obutholakala emiBhalweni ngale ndaba.

Le ndatshana yenzeka ngenxa yokutholakala okuthakazelisa okutholakala emibhalweni yokuqala yamaKristu mayelana nezimo ezenzeka ekufeni kukaJesu Kristu. Ngokuqondile, ukuzamazama komhlaba, ubumnyama bamahora we-3 nokunye.

Ngakho-ke umbhali unqume ukuthi abukeze ubufakazi obuvela ezinguqulweni zemibhalo yamaKristu okuqala (okungewona umbhalo) osatholakala nanamuhla. Inhloso bekuwukuthola ngokusho kwemithombo engeyona eye-Bhayibheli ukuthi yiliphi ithemba elaliphethwe ngamaKristu okuqala ngaleso sikhathi. Ngesikhathi sokuqala lolu phenyo umbhali ubengazi ukuthi uzotholani.

Kuqala kwavela ukuthi ithemba ekuqaleni kwamaKhristu okuqala kwakuwukuvuselwa emhlabeni ngomzimba wenyama, ukufanisa isiphetho ekuhlolweni kwemibhalo, ochungechungeni lwethu oluthi “Ithemba Lesintu Ngekusasa, Yini?”. Ngakho-ke, lokhu kubuyekezwa kudinga futhi nomzamo wokubona lapho kunezinguquko ezihamba kancane kancane okuholele ekubukeni okubanzi kobuKristu obukhulu namuhla ukuthi ithemba lizoya ezulwini.

Yimibhalo esetshenziswayo kuphela enobufakazi obamukelekayo evunyelwe izazi ezijwayelekile. Isibonelo, i-2nd Clement ayibhekwa njengomthombo ofanayo, umbhali nosuku njengo-1 Clement.

Ukubuyekezwa kuqoqwe ngu “uBaba weBandla Lokuqala” (njengoba ababhali bavame ukubizwa kanjalo) futhi ababhali bokuqala abangamaKristu bacashunwe ekuhlelweni konyaka wokubhala. Izixhumanisi zomthombo zinikezwe zonke izingcaphuno ukuze umfundi akwazi ukuthola okungaphezulu komongo uma ethanda. Kodwa-ke, umbhali uzamile ukunikeza umongo owanele wekhotheshini ukunika amandla abafundi ukuthi basebenzise umqondo wesilinganiso. Ezinye izingcaphuno zikhulu ngenxa yesitayela sababhali.

Okwenzekile kulokhu kuhlolwa kwemibhalo yokuqala yamaKristu kwakumusha futhi kunolwazi kakhulu kumlobi futhi sinethemba lokuthi nakho kuzokubonisa okufanayo, abafundi bethu abathandekayo.

Indlela

Umbhali wenza kabanzi, wadla isikhathi, ecwaninga kuyo yonke iMibhalo yamaKhristu okuQala akhona ngesiNgisi ukuze kuqinisekiswe umlando oqondile kanye nokukhonjiswa kwamaqiniso omlando. Akukho zinkomba zokuvuswa ezashiywe ngamabomu lapho zithinte khona ngesihloko seThemba Lesintu ngaphandle kokuthi zivela kumbhali ofanayo futhi ziphinda ukuqonda okufanayo (ngenxa yobungcwele) kuzingcaphuno ezivela kulowo mbhali ngamunye esezifakiwe. Uma abafundi bazi noma iziphi izingcaphuno ezibalulekile ezingashiyiwe / ezinganakwa ezixhasa iziphetho zalo mbhalo noma ziphikisana nazo, sicela ukhululeke ukuxhumana nomlobi.

UClement waseRoma: Obhaliwe c.88 AD - c.140 AD

Imibhalo kaClement yemibhalo yaseRoma ixoxa kafushane ngovuko ngokubhekisela ethembeni likaJobe. Akukho okushiwo ukuthi izulu likhona ezulwini.

I-1 Clement 24: 1

“Masiqonde, bathandekayo, ukuthi iNkosi isibonisa kanjani ngokuqhubekayo uvuko oluzakuba lapha; ngalokho wenza iNkosi uJesu Kristu waba ulibo kuye, lapho ayivusa kwabafileyo.

I-1 Clement 24: 2

"Masibheke, vuko olukhulu, ukuvuswa okuthokoza ngesikhathi saso esifanele."

I-1 Clement 24: 3

"Imini nobusuku basikhombisa uvuko. Ubusuku buyalala, usuku luye; usuku luyahamba, nobusuku buyeza. ”

I-1 Clement 26: 1

“Ngabe-ke sikubheka njengento enhle futhi emangalisayo, uma uMdali wezulu nomhlaba ezokwenza ukuvuka kwalabo abamkhonze ngobungcwele ngesiqinisekiso sokukholwa okuhle, ngoba Usikhombisa ngisho Ngibone ubukhulu besithembiso saKhe? ”

I-1 Clement 26: 2

“Ngoba uthi endaweni ethile: 'Uyakungiphakamisa, ngikudumise; futhi; Ngiye ngaya ekuphumuleni futhi ngalala, ngaphaphama, ngoba Unami. ”

I-1 Clement 26: 3

"Futhi uJobe uthi futhi:" Uyoyiphakamisa le nyama yami ebekezelele zonke lezi zinto. "

I-1 Clement 27: 1

"Ngakho-ke ngalethemba, imiphefumulo yethu mayiboshelwe kuye othembekile ezithembisweni zakhe, futhi ulungile ezwahlulelweni zakhe."

 Yonke le mibono eyenziwe nguClement wase Roma ayikhombisi ukuthi yiliphi ithemba lokuphila ezulwini, kunalokho baqinisa iziphetho esifikile lapho kuhlolwa umlando weBhayibheli ngaphambili.

Umthombo: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/1clement-lightfoot.html

Izingcezu zePapias: Okubhaliwe c.110 AD - c.140 AD

Izingcezu zingukuhlanganiswa kwemibhalo yabanye umbhali yakamuva ekhombisa ngokusobala ukuthi bacaphuna uPapias.

Lesi sicaphuni sikaJerome (kwi4th I-Century) ikhombisa ukuthi uPapias, u-Irenaeus nabanye babekholelwa ekubuseni kweminyaka engu-1,000 nguKristu osenyameni, ngemuva kokubuya kwakhe ebonakalayo emhlabeni. Kuyalandela ukuthi-ke ukuvuka kwabangcwele bekuzoba semhlabeni ngenyama futhi, hhayi njengezidalwa zomoya. (Uma kungenzeka ukuthi uJesu wayesenyameni uqobo, noma okungenani waba ngumuntu emhlabeni, ngokwezinkolelo zabo, khona-ke ngokuchaza abangcwele (noma abangcwele) ngokuqinisekile bazovuswa enyameni.)  

"Lo Papias kuthiwa wamemezela isiko lamaJuda leMinyaka Eyinkulungwane, futhi ulandelwa ngu-Irenaeus, Apollinarius nabanye, abathi emva kokuvuka iNkosi iyakubusa enyameni kanye nabangcwele. UTertullian naye emsebenzini wakhe Ngethemba labathembekile, uVictorinus wasePetau noLactantius balandela lombono.

Khipha ku: UJerome, Kumadoda Aqinile, i-18 ”  http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf203.v.iii.xx.html

 

IPolycarp: Martyrdom of Polycarp - Yabhalwa ekuqaleni c. 150 AD

I-Martyrdom of Polycarp - Isahluko XIV

Lesi sicashunwa asisho lutho ngezulu, ukuvuswa nje kokuphila okuphakade enyameni (emzimbeni). Futhi, ukuthi umphefumulo nomzimba kwakuyovuswa.

Kulesi sahluko mayelana nomkhuleko kaPolycarp uthi ngokwengxenye, "Ngiyanibonga ngokungibheka njengofanelwe yilolu suku nehora,… ovukweni lokuphila okuphakade, emphefumulweni nasemzimbeni, ngokungonakali ngoMoya oNgcwele. ”

Umthombo: Bheka U-Anti Nicene Fathers umqulu 1, Christian Classics Ethereal Library, p122 (pdf p165) https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.iv.iv.xiv.html

 

UJustin Martyr: Inkhulumomphendvulwano neTrypho - Kubhalwe c.155 AD - c.167 AD

Lapha u-Justin Martyr wasola amaKhristu wamanga ngokungakholelwa ovukweni lwabafileyo - (ie, njengabaSadusi) nokuthi amaKhristu wamanga akholelwa ukuthi imiphefumulo yawo uma ifa, ayiswa ezulwini, (ngakho-ke ngokuningana, ngeke afune ukuvuka).

Lokhu kukhombisa ukuthi ithonya elonakalisayo belivele lisebenza maphakathi ne-2nd Ikhulu leminyaka, kepha amabandla okuqala ahamba phambili ayiphikisa le mibono, ngoba lokhu bekuzoshintsha izinkolelo zabo zokufa zokuvuselwa emhlabeni zibe ngumqondo omusha wokuguqulwa kwesidalwa somoya ezulwini.

“Ngoba angikhethi ukulandela hhayi izimfundiso zabantu noma zabantu, kodwa uNkulunkulu nezimfundiso [ezethulwe] Nguye. Ngoba uma uwele nabathile ababizwa ngokuthi ngamaKristu, kepha abangavumi leli qiniso kanye nethuba lokuhlambalaza uNkulunkulu ka-Abrahama, noNkulunkulu ka-Isaka, noNkulunkulu kaJakobe; abathi akukho ukuvuka kwabafileyo, nokuthi imiphefumulo yabo, lapho ifa, iyiswa ezulwini; ungacabangi ukuthi bangamaKristu,…. 2263 … Kepha mina nabanye, abangamaKristu anomqondo ofanele kuwo wonke amaphuzu, siyaqinisekiswa ukuthi kuzoba nokuvuka kwabafileyo, neminyaka eyinkulungwane 2264 eJerusalema ”

 Source: p638 ANF01 Isahluko LXXX       https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.iv.lxxx.html

UTatian: Ikheli kumaGreki - Kubhalwe c. 155 AD - c. 165 AD

Lapha uTatian wayechaza ngokuqondile inkolelo yobuKhrestu yokuvuswa kwabangewona amaGrikhi. Isilinganiso sicaphuna kuphela ukukhuluma ngokuvuswa kwemizimba yenyama.

Isahluko VI. — ukukholelwa kwamaKristu ovukweni.

Futhi ngenxa yalokhu sikholwa ukuthi kuzoba nokuvuka kwemizimba ngemuva kokuqedwa kwezinto zonke; hhayi, njengoba amaStoics aqinisekisa, ngokuya ngokubuya kwemijikelezo ethile, izinto ezifanayo zikhiqizwa futhi zichithwe ngaphandle kwenhloso ewusizo, kodwa uvuko kube kanye, i-19 lapho izinkathi zethu zobuntu seziqediwe, futhi ngokulandela umthetho-sisekelo kuphela. wezinto abantu abaphila ngaphansi kwazo kuphela, ngenhloso yokwesahlulela kubo. Futhi akukho sigwebo esedlule phezu kwethu esedluliswa nguMinos noma uRhadamanthus, ongazange wahlulelwa umphefumulo owodwa kuye, ngokusho kwezinganekwane; kepha uMdali, uNkulunkulu uqobo, uba umbangi. Futhi, yize usithatha njengabambeki nje nabahluphi, akusikhathazi lokho, ngoba sinokholo kule mfundiso. Ngoba njengoba nje, kwakungekho ngaphambi kokuba ngizalwe, bengingazi ukuthi ngingubani, futhi ngikhona kuphela kokungamandla (ὐπόσὐπόσσσσ ς) kwendaba yenyama, kodwa ngokuzalwa ngumbuso ongasho lutho, ngokuzalwa wobukhona bami; ngendlela efanayo, sengizelwe, futhi ngokufa kungabe kusabakhona, futhi angisabonwa, ngiyophinde ngibe khona, njengoba nje ngangingakaze ngibe, kodwa ngazalwa kamuva. Noma umlilo ubhubhisa yonke iminonjana yenyama yami, umhlaba wamukela into efudumele; I-20 futhi yize ihlakazekile emifuleni nasolwandle, noma idwengulwe yizilwane zasendle, ngibekwe ezinqolobaneni zeNkosi ecebile. Futhi, yize abampofu nabangamhloniphi uNkulunkulu abazi ukuthi kugcinwe ini, kepha uNkulunkulu uMbusi, lapho ethanda, uzobuyisa into ebonakalayo kuYe kuphela esimweni sayo sokuphakama.

Imithombo: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/tatian-address.html

 

ITheophilus yase-Antiyokiya: Theophilus kuya ku-Autolycus - Kubhalwe c. 161 AD - c. 181 AD

I-Theophilus to Autolycus, Book 1, Isahluko VIII Ukholo oludingekayo kuzo zonke izindaba.

Lapha uTheophilus ubhalela umuntu obizwa ngokuthi u-Autolycus owayengakholelwa ovukweni futhi ecashunwe efundeka kahle njengoba uTheophilus ekholelwa ukuthi uvuko lwalulindeleke emhlabeni.

Kepha anikholwa ukuthi abafileyo bayavuswa. Lapho uvuko luzokwenzeka, khona-ke niyakukholwa, ukuthi niyathanda noma cha; nokukholwa kwakho kuzobalelwa ekungakholweni, ngaphandle kokuthi ukholwe manje. Futhi kungani ungakholelwa? Anazi yini ukuthi ukholo luyisisekelo esivelele kuzo zonke izindaba? ”

 

Theophilus to Autolycus, Book 1, Isahluko XIII, Uvuko lukhonjiswe ngezibonelo.

Lokhu kucashunwa okunye ku-Theophilus nako kufundeka ngokucacile njengoba kulindeleke okulindelwe emhlabeni.

“Manje-ke, ekuphikeni kwakho ukuthi abafileyo bayavuswa — ngoba uthi, 23 “Ngikhombise ngisho ovusiwe kwabafileyo, ukuze ukubona ngikholwe,” - okokuqala, kuyini into enhle uma ukholwa lapho usubonile kwenziwa lokho? Bese, futhi, uyakholelwa ukuthi amaHercules, 93 ozishisile, uyaphila; nokuthi u-Æsculapius, owashaywa ngombani, wavuswa; futhi awuzikholelwa yini izinto ozitshelwe nguNkulunkulu? Kepha ake sithi ngikubonise umuntu ofileyo ovusiwe futhi ephila, yebo lokhu bekungakholelwa. Ngempela uNkulunkulu ukukhombisa ubufakazi obuningi bokuthi ungamkholwa. Ngoba bheka, uma uthanda, ukufa kwezinkathi nezinsuku nobusuku, ukuthi nakho lokhu kufa kungavuka kanjani. ”

 Source: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/theophilus-book1.html

Theophilus to Autolycus, Book 2, Isahluko XXVI, ubuhle bukaNkulunkulu ngokuxosha umuntu ePharadesi

Lokhu kucashunwe kufundeka ngokusobala njengoba kulindeleke ukuthi uvuko lube emhlabeni.

"ukuze kuthi lokho kwagcwaliseka lapho ebekwa lapho, kuthi okwesibili kugcwaliseke emva kovuko nesahlulelo. Ngoba njengoba nje isitsha, lapho senziwe umfashini, sinephutha elithile, siyakhiwa kabusha noma sibuyiselwe emuva, ukuze sibe sisisha futhi siphelele; kanjalo futhi kuyenzeka kumuntu 105 ngokufa. Ngoba ngandlela-thile noma okunye uphukile, ukuze avuke ovukweni luphelele;

Ngiqonde ukungabi nanabala, nokulunga, nokungafi. ”

Source: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/theophilus-book2.html

 

I-Athenagoras - Ukuvuswa kwabafileyo: Ibhaliwe c.177 AD

I-Athenagoras lapha ibidingida ngovuko lwangempela lwemizimba yenyama eyayincibilikile emhlabeni nokuthi uNkulunkulu wayekwazi ukuguqula kabusha imizimba yokuhlakazeka.

Isahluko XI - Ukuphindaphinda

“Ngakho-ke, uma kunjalo, ngokusebenzisa lokho okungokwemvelo kuqala futhi okulandelayo, iphuzu ngalinye eliphenywayo selifakazisiwe, kusobala impela ukuthi ukuvuswa kwemizimba encibilikisiwe kungumsebenzi uMdali angawenza, futhi ngiyakwazi, ”

Isahluko XVIII- Ukwahlulela kumele kube nokubhekisa kuwo wonke umphefumulo nasemzimbeni

"Umphumela wakho konke lokhu ucace bha kuwo wonke umuntu, ikakhulukazi, ngolimi lomphostoli," lokhu okonakalayo (nokuqhekeka) kumele kufake ukungonakali, "153 ukuze kuthi labo ababefile, bephilisiwe ngovuko, futhi izingxenye ezahlukaniswa zahlakazwa zaphinde zahlanganiswa, yilowo nalowo nalowo, ngokomthetho, angakuthola akwenze ngomzimba, noma ngabe ube muhle noma mubi. "

Source: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/athenagoras-resurrection.html

 

U-Irenaeus - Ngokumelene ne-Heresies: Ibhalwe c.180 AD - c.202 AD

U-Irenaeus wabhala emelana nezinkolelo-ze nezimfundiso zamanga ezazizungeza ngaleso sikhathi. Zonke lezi izingcaphuno ezingumongo wazo zikhombisa ngokusobala yena nobuKhrestu bokuqala ngaleso sikhathi ababekholelwa kuvuko lwasemhlabeni.

Ngokumelene ne-Heresies, Book V, Isahluko XXXII

“Ngakho-ke, labo bokholo bayobusiswa ngo-Abrahama othembekile, futhi laba bangabantwana baka-Abrahama. Manje uNkulunkulu wenza isithembiso somhlaba ku-Abrahama nakwinzalo yakhe; nokho u-Abrahama nenzalo yakhe, okungukuthi, labo abalungisiswayo ngokukholwa, 562 manje thola noma iliphi ifa kulo; kepha bayakuyamukela ekuvukeni kwabalungileyo. Ngoba uNkulunkulu uqinisile futhi uthembekile; futhi ngenxa yalokhu uthe, Babusisiwe abamnene, ngokuba bazakudla ifa lomhlaba. ”

 

Ngokumelene ne-Heresies, Book V, Isahluko XXXIII

“Uthembise ukuthi uzophuza izithelo zomvini enabafundi bakhe, okukhombisa womabili la maphuzu: ifa lomhlaba lapho kudliwa khona isithelo esisha somvini, nokuvuka kwabafundi bakhe enyameni. Ngoba inyama entsha evuka futhi iyafana nayo eyamukele indebe entsha. Futhi angeke kuqondwe nganoma iyiphi indlela ukuthi uphuza isithelo somvini lapho ehlaliswa [nabafundi bakhe ngaphezulu] endaweni ephezulu ezulwini; futhi, futhi, futhi abayiphuza ngaphandle komzimba, ukuze baphuze okuphuma emvinini kungokwenyama, hhayi umoya. ”

"I-3. Isibusiso sika-Isaka abusisa ngaso indodana yakhe encane uJakobe sinencazelo efanayo, lapho ethi, "Bheka, iphunga lendodana yami linjengephunga lensimu egcwele ebusiswe yiNkosi."2088 Kepha “insimu yizwe.”2089 Futhi ngenxa yalokho wanezela, uNkulunkulu makakunike amazolo ezulu, nokukhuluphala komhlaba, inala yamabele newayini. Izizwe mazikukhonze, namakhosi akhothame kuwe. ube yinkosi yomfowenu ,amadodana kayihlo akhothame kuwe, uqalekiswe lowo okuthukayo, ubusiswe ozokubusisa.2090 Uma umuntu ekhona-ke, ongazemukeli lezi zinto njengokubhekisele embusweni omisiwe, kufanele awele ekuphikisaneni nasekuvumelaneni okuningi, njengoba kwenzeka kumaJuda, ahileleka ekuphazamisekeni ngokuphelele. Ngoba izizwe azikhonzanga nje kuphela uJakobe kulokhu; kepha noma esethole isibusiso, yena uqobo

ukuphuma [ekhaya lakhe], wakhonza umalume wakhe uLabani umSyria iminyaka engamashumi amabili; 2091 futhi akagcinanga lapho waba yinkosi yomfowabo, kepha waqubuda phambi komnewabo u-Esawu, lapho ebuya eMesophothamiya kuyise, wamnika izipho eziningi. 2092 Ngaphezu kwalokho, iyiphi indlela ayizuza njengefa ingqolowa newayini elikhulu lapha, yena owathuthela eGibhithe ngenxa yendlala eyayiphethe izwe ayehlala kulo, waba ngaphansi kukaFaro, owayesebusa eGibhithe ngaleso sikhathi? Ngakho-ke isibusiso esibikezelwe kungokungangabazeki ngezikhathi zombuso, lapho abalungileyo beyokubusa ekuvukeni kwabo kwabafileyo;2093 lapho futhi indalo, ilungisiwe futhi yabekwa mahhala, izochuma ngobuningi bazo zonke izinhlobo zokudla, kusukela kumazolo ezulu, nasekuveleni komhlaba:

 

Ngokumelene ne-Heresies, Book V, Isahluko XXXIII

"Kodwa-ke, uma noma ubani ezama ukugcizelela [iziprofetho] zalolu hlobo, ngeke zitholakale zivumelana nazo kuwo wonke amaphuzu, futhi kuzofakazelwa ukufundiswa kwawona lawo mazwi [kumbuzo]. Isibonelo: "Lapho amadolobha" abeZizwe "eyakuba yincithakalo, ukuze kungabikho muntu, nezindlu ukuze kungabikho bantu kuzo nezwe liyoshiywa liyincithakalo."2117 “Ngoba bheka,” kusho u-Isaya, “usuku lweNkosi seluyavela seludlulile, lugcwele ukufutheka nolaka, lokuchitha idolobha lomhlaba nokususa izoni kulo.”2118 Futhi uthi, "Makasuswe, ukuze angaboni inkazimulo kaNkulunkulu."2119 Futhi lapho lezi zinto sezenziwe, uthi, "uNkulunkulu uzosusa abantu kude, futhi abasele bayanda emhlabeni. "2120 "Bayakwakha izindlu, bahlale kuzo, batshala izivini, bazidlele bona."2121 Ngoba wonke la mazwi namanye ayekhulunywa ngokungangabazeki ngokubhekisele ovukweni lwabalungileyo, olwenzeka emva kokufika kuka-Umphikukristu, kanye nokubhujiswa kwazo zonke izizwe ngaphansi kokubusa kwakhe; ezikhathini [zokuvuka] lapho abalungileyo bayobusa emhlabeni, beqina ngokwamandla eNkosi, futhi ngayo bajwayele ukuhlanganyela enkazimulweni kaNkulunkulu uYise, bajabulele embusweni ukuhlangana kanye nokuhlangana nezingelosi ezingcwele, nobumbano nezidalwa zokomoya; futhi [maqondana] nalabo iNkosi ezobathola enyameni, beyilindele ivela ezulwini, futhi abaye bahlupheka usizi, kanye nokuphunyuka ezandleni zoKhohlakele. Ngoba kubhekiselwe kubo ukuthi umprofethi uthi: "Abasele bande emhlabeni,"

Source: http://gnosis.org/library/advh5.htm

I-Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus: Ibhaliwe: Izilinganiso ezahlukahlukene phakathi kwe-c.130 AD kuya ku-c.190 AD-c.199 AD.

Umfundaze wanamuhla uthanda usuku lokugcina.

Lokhu kubhala okukholelwa ukuthi sekwephuze i-2nd ikhulu lisho umlayezo ohluke kakhulu kulabo abahlolwe ngaphambilini. Kwethula imiqondo yokungafi komphefumlo nokuphila ezulwini ngokungafani ngokuphelele nomyalezo kaClement no-Irenaeus nabanye besikhathi esifanayo. Ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi lokhu kungaba (a) kwemibhalo yamaKhristu wamanga ashiwo nguIrenaeus noma (b) izinguquko kamuva emibhalweni eyenziwe ngabakopishi ukuthi bavumelane nezimfundiso ezazikhona ngaleso sikhathi eSontweni LamaKatolika.

Amaqiniso asekela lezi ziphetho ngala alandelayo:

  1. Amakhophi okuphela kwe-3 kuphela aqhamuka kwi-1592 AD, eminye iminyaka engu-1400 ngemuva kokuthi abhalwe phansi ukuthi abhalwe phansi.
  2. Izazi zisola kakhulu ukuthi okungenani izahluko XI kanye no-XII azinakuphindeka, okukhombisa ukungabaza kwezinye izahluko.
  3. Ukufakazelwa okungabazekayo kukhuphuka nangokwengeziwe njengoba izingcaphuno zingqubuzana nemibhalo yokuqala eyayihlolwe ngaphambilini kusikhathi esifanayo.

 

Izibalo - Isahluko V - Imikhuba YamaKrestu -

"Zisenyameni, kepha aziphili ngokwenyama.22 Bayadlula izinsuku zabo emhlabeni, kepha bayizakhamizi zezulu.23"

Lokhu kuphawulwa kungafundwa njengokuvumelana nombhalo onjengeFiliphi 3: 20 "Kepha thina, ubuzwe bethu bukhona emazulwini, nokuyilapho sikulindele ngabomvu umsindisi, iNkosi uJesu Kristu", sixoxe zombili ngalokhu umsuka wezakhamizi ngokuthi zivela ezulwini Ie God.

I-Mathetes -chapter VI -

"Umphefumlo ongafi uhlala etabernakele ofayo; futhi amaKristu ahlala njengabafokazi emizimbeni eyonakalayo, afuna indawo yokuhlala engonakali31 emazulwini."

Le ngxenye ihluke kakhulu kunoma yikuphi ukucaphuna okutholakele. Ifundeka njengezimfundiso zakamuva zeSonto LamaKatolika kunokuqonda kwezimfundiso zokuqala zobuKristu kuze kube manje.

 

I-Mathetes -chapter X -

"Lowo amthembise ubukhosi ezulwini, futhi uzobanika labo abamthandayo."

Le ngxenye ifundeka njengezimfundiso zakamuva zeSonto LamaKatolika kunokuqonda kwezimfundiso zokuqala zobuKristu kuze kube manje.

Source: Bheka i-AntiNiceneFathers umqulu we-1, umtapo wezincwadi weChristian Classics Ethereal, ikhasi 71, (ikhophi le-PDF p114)

Source: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/diognetus.html

 

UClement wase-Alexandria: Ibhaliwe i-c.193 AD - c.217 AD

Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi izazi ziyaqaphela ukuthi kunokonakala okuningi emibhalweni etholakala kaClement wase-Alexandria. Ukuthi ukucaphuna okulandelayo kungenye yalezi zinto ezonakele kamuva kunzima ukukuqonda, kepha akufani nalokho okwabhalwa nguIrenaeus kusukela ngesikhathi esifanayo njengoba kusikisela indawo yasezulwini, yize sekupheleni komhlaba, hhayi ekufeni okuningi Izinkolo zobuKristu zifundisa namuhla.

Ngubani umuntu ocebile ozosindiswa?

"Indondo yovuko esinethemba laso; nini ekugcineni komhlaba, izingelosi, zikhazimula ngenjabulo, zihlabelela futhi zivula amazulu, ziyokwamukela ezindlini zasezulwini labo abaphenduka ngokweqiniso; futhi ngaphambi kwakho konke, uMsindisi uqobo uya ehlangana nabo, ebamukela; ebambe ukukhanya okungenamthunzi, okungenamibono; ukuhola kubo, esifubeni sikaYise, empilweni yaphakade, embusweni wezulu. ”.

Umthombo: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.v.html

 

UTertullian: Imibhalo Ehlukahlukene - Ibhaliwe c.208 AD (Ngokumelene noMarcion)

Lezi izingcaphuno ezimbili ezivela ekubhaleni kukaTertullian ogama lakhe lingu-Apologetic zikhuluma ngokuvuswa kwawo wonke umuntu emizimbeni efanayo, kuqhathanisa lokhu nemibono yobuqaba yokuphindukuzalwa kwezilwane.

I-Apologetic: Ukuxolisa: Isahluko XLVIII

"Lapho-ke lonke uluntu luyovuswa, ukuba luhlaziywe njengokulunga kwalo esikhathini sokuhle noma okubi, bese kuthi emva kwalokho kukhokhelwe ngeminyaka engenakuphikiswa yobuphakade. Ngakho-ke emva kwalokhu akukho ukufa noma ukuvuswa okuphindaphindwayo, kodwa sizofana nalokhu esiyikho manje, futhi esingashintshiwe namanje - izinceku zikaNkulunkulu, ezihlala zikanye noNkulunkulu ”.

 Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.iv.iii.xlviii.html

 

I-Apologetic: Izizwe Zezikhangiso: Incwadi 1, Isahluko XIX

"ngoba thina sithatha kalula ukuvuka kwabafileyo. Ithemba kulokhu kuvuka kufana ukwedelela ukufa ”…“ Kepha kubaluleke kangakanani ukwamukela inkolelo yethu egcizelela ukuthi bazobuyela emizimbeni efanayo! Futhi yeka ubuhlakani bakho kangakanani ifa lakho, umoya womuntu uzovela futhi inja, noma umnyuzi, noma ipikoko! ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.iv.viii.i.xix.html

 

U-Anti-Marcion: Umyalezo Olwa Namavukelambuso: Isahluko XIII: Isifinyezo seCred or Rule of Faith (p513 pdf)

Lokhu kucashunwa, ngenkathi ingxenye kungaqondakala ngayo yonke indlela, kukhuluma ngokuvuka kwabangcwele nababi okwenzeka kanye nokuthi kungokwenyama. Ngokusobala ababi abayi ezulwini futhi akukho mbono wovuko njengezidalwa zomoya.

“[UKristu] wayehlala ngakwesokunene sikaYise; kuthunyelwe esikhundleni saYena Amandla oMoya oNgcwele ukuhola onjengokukholelwa; izofika ngenkazimulo ukuthatha abangcwele bayithokozise ngokuphila okuphakade kanye nezithembiso zasezulwini, futhi igwebe ababi ngomlilo waphakade, ngemuva kokuvuka kwalezi zifundo zombili kuzokwenzeka, kanye nokubuyiselwa kwenyama yabo. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.v.iii.xiii.html

 

U-Anti-Marcion: Umyalezo Olwa Nabavukeli: Isahluko XLIV: Abaphasi Abahlonipha Inhlonipho NgoKristu Futhi Abhubhise Konke Ukwesaba Kwahlulelo Bakhe Olukhulu (p556 pdf)

Le ndima ethokozisayo ikhuluma ngabahlubuki futhi enze iphuzu lakhe, ingabe uJesu ukhuluma ngokukhohlisa nangokuhlekisayo nalaba bahlambalazi, aqhathanise lokho ayekufundisa nalokho abahlohli benkolo abafundisayo, okubonisa ukuthi inhlekisa imibono yabo yenza izimfundiso zikaKristu. Ubuza lo mbuzo, kungani uJesu azofunda into eyodwa bese kamuva eshintsha umqondo wakhe?

"Ngicabanga kanjalo they [abambuka] uzoba sengozini enkulu yokuxolelwa okulahlekile, lapho iNkosi iphendula: Nginixwayisile ngokusobala ukuthi kufanele kube nabafundisi bemfundiso yamanga egameni lami, kanye nabaprofethi nabaphostoli; futhi ngabafundisa abafundi bami uqobo ukuthi kufanele bashumayele kuwe izinto ezifanayo. Kepha wena, bekumele, kunjalo, ukuthi uzongikholwa! Ngake nganika ivangeli kanye nemfundiso yomthetho oshiwo (wokuphila nokukholwa) kubaphostoli bami; kepha emva kwalokho bekungijabulisa ukwenza ushintsho olukhulu kuyo! Bengithembise uvuko, yebo lwenyama; kepha, ngemicabango yesibili, kwangithinta hleze ngikwazi ukugcina isithembiso sami! Ngangizibonisile ukuthi ngizelwe yintombi nto; kodwa lokhu bekubonakala kimi njengento edumazayo kamuva. ”

 Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.v.iii.xliv.html

 

Izincwadi Ezinhlanu ngokumelene noMarcion: Incwadi 3: Isahluko XXIV: UKrestu UyiWaka Leminyaka Nezinkazimulo Zasezulwini ngokusebenzisana Nabangcwele Bakhe (p738 pdf)

Lapha uMarcion, obhekwa njengomkhohlisi nguTertullian, umemezela ukuthi likhona ithemba lempilo emazulwini, into uTertullian angakaze ayijabulele futhi ucela uMarcion ukuba anikeze ubufakazi balokhu. UTertullian ubiza lokhu ngokuthi a 'Ukuzenzisa okuyize kwesithembiso esinamandla'!

“Manje, mina uqobo, noma umBhalo ungangitshelanga ithemba lethemba lasezulwini, kufanele ngibe nokuzazisa okwanele yalesi sithembiso, ekujabuleni kwami ​​kwesipho sasemhlabeni; futhi kufanele ngifune okuthile nako okwasezulwini, okuvela kuYe onguNkulunkulu wezulu nomhlaba. Ngakho-ke kufanele ngikholwe ukuthi uKristu othembisa izibusiso eziphakeme (yiNdodana) yaYuye owayethembise nabaphansi; futhi, ngaphezu kwalokho, owayenikeze ubufakazi bezipho ezinkulu ngabancane; owayemgcinele u-Kristu Wakhe kuphela lesambulo (a) mhlawumbe okungezwakali kombuso, ukuze kuthi, ngenkathi inkazimulo yasemhlabeni imenyezelwe yizinceku zaKhe, abasezulwini bangahle babe noNkulunkulu uqobo lwayo ngesithunywa sayo. Wena, kodwa-ke, phikisana ngomunye uKristu, kusukela kuleso simo ukuthi Umemezela umbuso omusha. Kufanele uqale ulethe isibonelo sokuzuzisa Kwakhe, ukuze ngingenasizathu esihle sokungabaza ukuthembeka kwesithembiso esikhulu, oshoyo okufanele sibe nokuthenjwa; Cha, kungaphambi kwazo zonke izinto ezidingekayo ukuthi ufakazele ukuthi izulu lingelakhe, omazisa njengomphakamisi wezinto zasezulwini. Njengoba kunje, usimema esidlweni sakusihlwa, kepha ungakhombisi indlu yakho; Ugomela umbuso, kepha ungasibonisi umbuso. Kungenzeka yini ukuthi uKristu wakho athembise umbuso wezulu, ngaphandle kokuthola izulu; njengoba Waziveza enguMuntu, ngaphandle kokuba nenyama? O yeka ukuthi phantom kusukela ekuqaleni kuya ekugcineni! O ukuzenzisa okuyize kwesithembiso esinamandla!"

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.v.iv.iv.xxiv.html

 

Izincwadi Ezinhlanu ngokumelene noMarcion: Incwadi 5: Isahluko IX: Imfundiso Yovuko. Umzimba uzovuka futhi (p965 pdf)

Isisusa sonke salesi sahluko ukuthi umzimba wenyama uzovuka futhi. Akukho okuphakamisayo ukuthi uvuko luzoba njengolunye uhlobo lwesidalwa somoya.

“Ethinta uvuko lwabafileyo, ake siqale ngokubuza ukuthi abanye abantu bakuphika kanjani lokho. Akungabazeki ngendlela efanayo naleyo ephikwa ngayo manje, ngoba uvuko lwenyama lunazo zonke izikhathi amadoda ukukuphika. Kepha amadoda amaningi ahlakaniphile athi umphefumulo ungumuntu waphezulu, futhi unethemba lokuphela okungasoze kwawo, futhi nesixuku sikhonza abafileyo ngombono abakukhuthaza ngesibindi ukuthi imiphefumulo yabo iyaphila. Kepha imizimba yethu, kuyabonakala ukuthi ziyashabalala kube kanye ngomlilo noma ngesilo sasendle, noma noma igcinwa isikhathi eside ngokucophelela. Ngakho-ke, umphostoli uyenqaba labo abaphika ukuvuswa kwenyama, uvikela impela, ephikisana nabo, udaba oluqondile lokuphikwa kwabo, okungukuthi, ukuvuka komzimba. Unayo yonke impendulo ehlanganiswa kulokhu. Konke okunye kuyize. Manje kulelo phuzu, elibizwa ngokuthi ukuvuswa kwabafileyo, kuyadingeka ukuthi amandla afanele amagama alondolozwe ngokufanele. 5586 Igama Ufile uveza nje lokho okulahlekile umgomo obalulekile, ngawo. Manje umzimba yilokho olahlekelwa yimpilo, futhi ngenxa yalokho ulahlekelwe uyafa. Kuya ku- umzimba, ngakho-ke, igama elithi ufile lifanelekile kuphela. Ngaphezu kwalokho, njengoba uvuko lufinyelela kulokho okufile, futhi igama elifile lisebenza emzimbeni kuphela, ngakho-ke umzimba kuphela onovuko olwenzeka ngalo. ”

 Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.v.iv.vi.ix.html

 

Izincwadi Ezinhlanu ngokumelene noMarcion: Incwadi 5: Isahluko IX: Imfundiso Yovuko. Umzimba uzovuka futhi (p971 pdf)

UMarcion, wayebhekwa nguTertullian njengomuntu ongumhlubuki, futhi wayethula imfundiso yokuthi kwakunguwo umphefumulo owathola insindiso futhi akukho luvuko lwenyama, kamuva olwathuthukisa lwaba umbono osabalele namuhla kweLobukholwa, wokuthi umphefumulo uya ezulwini noma esihogweni.

“Ngoba uMarcion akaluvumi nakancane ukuvuswa kwenyama, futhi kungukusindiswa komphefumlo kuphela awuthembisayo; ngenxa yalokho umbuzo awuphakamisayo awuphathelene uhlobo zomzimba, kodwa yona kanye izinto ngakho ”

 Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.v.iv.vi.ix.html

 

Izincwadi Ezinhlanu ngokumelene noMarcion: Incwadi 5: Isahluko IX: Imfundiso Yovuko. Umzimba uzovuka futhi (p972 pdf)

Kuyamangaza kakhulu umlobi, owayengakaze afunde imisebenzi kaTertullian ngaphambi kokwenza lolu cwaningo, uTertullian uxoxa ngendawo evela ku-1 Korinte 15: I-35-57 futhi ifinyelela esiphethweni esifanayo nomlobi lapho ecwaninga kuphela imibhalo ye “Ithemba Lesintu Ngekusasa, Liyoba kuphi? Ingxenye 5 ”.

“Ngokunjalo,“ yize kuhlwanyelwa kungumzimba wemvelo, kuvuswa kungumzimba wokomoya. ”Manje, yize kuyisisekelo sempilo futhi umoya unomzimba ngamunye ngokwawo, ukuze “umzimba wemvelo” uthathwe kahle ukusho umphefumulo, 'nomzimba ongokomoya' umoya, nokho lokho akusona isizathu sokucabanga umphostoli ukusho ukuthi umphefumulo uyoba umoya ovukweni, kodwa lokho umzimba (okuthi, njengokuzalwa komphefumlo, nokugcina impilo yawo ngomphefumulo, uyavuma ukubizwa ngesilwane (noma zemvelo) uyoba ngokomoya, ngoba ikhuphuka ngoMoya iye empilweni yaphakade. Ngamafuphi, njengoba kungewona umphefumulo, kepha inyama "ehlwanyelwe inokonakala," lapho iphenduka ukubola emhlabathini, kulandela ukuthi (ngemuva kokuchithwa okunjalo) umphefumulo awusewona umzimba wemvelo, kodwa inyama , okwakungumzimba wemvelo, (kungumbhalo woshintsho lwakusasa), ngoba njengomzimba wemvelo wenziwa umzimba wokomoya ”.

 Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.v.iv.vi.ix.html

 

Izincwadi Ezinhlanu ngokumelene noMarcion: Incwadi 5: Isahluko IX: Imfundiso Yovuko. Umzimba uzovuka futhi (p973-5 pdf)

Lokhu ukuqhubeka kwendima efanayo kusuka kokucashunwe ngokushesha ngaphezulu. Le khotheshini futhi inencazelo ecishe ifane yamazwi kaPawulu kwabaseKorinte njengomlobi walolu phenyo ngethemba lesintu ngekusasa.

“Ngimaphi la magama alandelayo? “Manje ngikusho, bazalwane, ukuthi inyama negazi akunakulidla ifa lombuso kaNkulunkulu.”  Usho imisebenzi yenyama negazi, okuthi, eNcwadini yakhe eya kwabaseGalathiya, ancishe abantu embusweni kaNkulunkulu ”… nokuthi“ Kepha uvuko luyinto eyodwa, nombuso ungolunye. Uvuko kuqala, emva kwalokho umbuso. Sithi-ke, ukuthi inyama iyavuka futhi, kepha ukuthi uma iguqulwe ithola umbuso. “Ngoba abafileyo bayovuswa bengonakali,” ngisho nalabo ababenokonakala lapho imizimba yabo iqala ukubola; “Sizoguqulwa, umzuzwana, ngokuqwayiza kwamehlo. Ngoba lokhu okonakalayo ”- futhi njengoba ayekhuluma, kubonakala sengathi lo mphostoli wakhomba enyameni yakhe -“ kumele wembathe ukungonakali, nalokhu okufayo kumele kugqokwe ukungafi, ” ukuze, empeleni, lihunyushwe kufanelekile ngombuso kaNkulunkulu. "Ngoba sizofana nezingelosi." Lokhu kuzoba ushintsho oluphelele lwenyama yethu - kuphela ngemuva kokuvuka kwayo. Manje uma, okuphambene nalokho, akumelwe kube khona inyama, khona-ke iyakwembatha kanjani ukungonakali nokungafi? Njengoba sesiphenduke enye into ngokushintshwa kwayo, izothola umbuso kaNkulunkulu, ingasasebenzi inyama (endala) negazi, kodwa umzimba uNkulunkulu azowunika wona. Ngakho-ke umphostoli uthi: "Inyama negazi akunakulidla ifa lombuso kaNkulunkulu;" ngoba lokhu (ukuhlonipha) ubeka esimweni esishintshileyo esizayo ngovuko. Ngakho-ke, lapho-ke kuzofezeka izwi elalotshwa nguMdali elithi, “O kufa, kuphi ukunqoba kwakho” - noma umzabalazo wakho? "O kufa, luphi udosi lwakho?"

 Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.v.iv.vi.ix.html

 

Ekuvukeni Kwenyama (PDF p1202 -> p1270 +)

Le ncwadi, enkulu, imayelana nokuvikela inkolelo yokuqala yobuKristu yokuvuka emuva emzimbeni wenyama, ngokumelene nethonya labaSadusi abangamaJuda kanye nefilosofi yamaPagani kwamanye amaKristu okuqala. AbakwaMarcionite babekholelwa ukuthi uJesu wayengumsindisi othunywe nguNkulunkulu, kanti noPaul Umphostoli wayengumphostoli oyinhloko, kodwa benqaba i-Bible yesiHeberu kanye no-Israyeli kaNkulunkulu njengenhlangano ehlukile futhi ephansi kunoNkulunkulu othethelelayo weTestamente elisha. Bakholelwa futhi ekusindisweni komphefumlo kepha hhayi ovukweni lwenyama. Kungenxa yalesi sizinda ukuthi izingcaphuno ezilandelayo zikaTertullian zisho:

(p1205) “Ngoba uma ukuvuswa kwenyama kuphikwa, leyo ndatshana yokholo uyanyakaziswa; uma kuthiwa, lokho kuyasungulwa. ”

(p1234) "Kwabanye, lapho sebeke baphila ngendlela evamile yesitatimende sesiprofetho, kuvame ukuvezwa ngesithombe nangokomfanekiso, noma kungenjalo ngaso sonke isikhathi, bahlanekezela ngomqondo othile wokucabanga ngisho nemfundiso echazwe ngokucace kakhulu yokuvuswa kwabafileyo, bethi ngisho nokufa uqobo kumele luqondwe ngokomoya ”.

 

(p1241) Ngokuphathelene noMphostoli uPawulu uthi: "Umphostoli ubhalela abaseFiliphi:" Uma ngandlela thile, ngingathola ukuvuswa kwabafileyo. Akunjengokungathi sengivele ngitholile, noma sengivele ngiphelele. ”  Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi lokhu kucaphuna kwabaseFiliphi 3: 11 ukuthi umbhalo awufundanga "ukuvuswa kwangaphambili" njengakwi-NWT, kepha uthi "uvuko" kuphela.

 

(p1259) Kubhekiswa kuMathewu 10: Izizathu ze-28 Tertullian: "Kepha yena [UJesu] kusifundisa nokuthi, “Kufanele esatshwe, okwazi ukubhubhisa umzimba nomzimba esihogweni,” okungukuthi, iNkosi yodwa; "Hhayi labo ababulala umzimba, kepha abakwazi ukulimaza umphefumulo," okungukuthi, wonke amandla abantu. Lapha-ke, sinokuqashelwa kokungafi kwemvelo komphefumlo, okungenakubulawa ngabantu; nangokufa komzimba, okungabulawa. sifunde kuphi ukuthi uvuko lwabafileyo luvuko lwenyama; ngoba ngaphandle kokuthi iphinde ivuswe, bekungeke kwenzeke ukuba inyama “ibulawe esihogweni.”

Kodwa-ke, ngokwenza lokhu uye wethula ukungafi komphefumlo ebuKristwini obujwayelekile yize kungenjalo ngencazelo efanayo nobukristu banamuhla. Kunombuzo futhi emqondweni wombhali wokuthi le ndima idluliselwa kamuva yini njengoba kungahambisani nokucaphuna okulandelayo okuvela emibhalweni yakhe kanye nomyalezo uwonke awunikezayo ngemibhalo yakhe.

               

(p1265) Lokhu kuyazikhulumela. Ukucabanga okunikezwayo ngukuthi, Kungani uKristu avusa uLazaru nabanye babuyela emhlabeni? Kwasebenza ukugcina ukukholelwa kwabesilisa kuvuko lwasemhlabeni lwesikhathi esizayo ngendlela efanayo ababevele beyiqonda.

Isahluko XXXVIII. U-Kristu, Ngokuvusa Abafileyo, Wafakazelwa Ngendlela Esebenzayo Imfundiso Yokuvuswa Kwenyama.

“Ngemuva kweNkosi amagama, yini okufanele siyicabange ngokuhlanzeka Kwakhe izenzo, lapho Evusa abafileyo kuma-biers abo futhi amangcwaba abo? Wenza lokho kuze kube nini? Ukube kwakungemibukiso yamandla Akhe nje, noma ukukhokhela ukubuyiselwa kwesikhashana empilweni, kwakungeyona ndaba enkulu kuYe ukuthi avuse amadoda ukuba afe futhi. Uma-ke, njengoba bekuyiqiniso, bekungaphezu kwalokho ukubeka ukubeka ngokuphepha ukukholelwa kwabesilisa ovukweni oluzayo, khona-ke kufanele kulandele uhlobo oluthile lwezibonelo Zakhe, ukuthi uvuko olushilo luzoba ngomzimba. Angisoze ngavumela ukuthi kuthiwe ukuthi uvuko lwekusasa, njengoba lumiselwe umphefumulo kuphela, wabe esethola le mifanekiso yokuqala yokuphakanyiswa kwenyama, ngoba nje bekungeke kwenzeke ukukhombisa ukuvuswa komphefumlo ongabonakali ngaphandle kokuvuselelwa kwento ebonakalayo."

 

(p1266) Lapha uTertullian uqinisekisa ukuthi abaPhostoli abazange bethule noma iyiphi imfundiso entsha ngovuko okwakungakaze kukholwe phakathi kwamaJuda. (ITestamente Elidala alinalo nelilodwa icebo lokuvuselwa ezulwini, lifundisa ngokusobala uvuko lokubuyela emhlabeni.)

Isahluko XXXIX. Ubufakazi Obengeziwe Esabelwe Kithi Ezenzweni Zabaphostoli.

“Izenzo zabaPhostoli, nazo, ziyafakaza uvuko. Manje abaphostoli babengenakwenza okunye, okungenani phakathi kwamaJuda, kunokuba kuchaze iTestamente Elidala futhi uqinisekise okusha, futhi ngaphezu kwakho konke, ukushumayela uNkulunkulu ngoKristu. Ngenxa yalokho azethulanga lutho olusha mayelana novuko, ngaphandle kokulwazisa ngenkazimulo kaKristu: kuzo zonke ezinye izindlela yayisithathiwe ngokulula nangokukholwa okukholwayo, ngaphandle kokungabaza ukuthi luhlobo luni lovuko olwaluzakuba yilona, ​​futhi ngaphandle kokuhlangana nabanye abaphikisi ngaphandle kwabaSadusi. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.v.viii.i.html ukuqala kwale ncwadi

(i-p1270 iya phambili ekuVukeni kweSanyama kungabuyekezwa njengoba okungenhla kuthathwe njengokulingene)

 

U-Origen: De Principiis, ngokumelene noCelsus - Okubhaliwe c.230 AD

UDe Principiis, iNcwadi 2, Ekuvukeni nasehlulelweni, p706 pdf, ikhasi #666

Lesi sitatimende senziwe ngezwi lomphostoli uPaul ku1 Korion 15 ukumelana nalabo abaphika uvuko ekuqaleni kwe3rd Ikhulu. Qaphela ukuthi ukuqonda ngalesosikhathi kwakungukuthi uPhawuli wayeboleka ukuqhathaniswa nemizimba yasezulwini ukukhombisa ukuthi ngabe isikhundla esingakanani (sasiphelele, enkazimulweni) labo abavusiwe sasizoba ngcono kakhulu, uma siqhathanisa nesikhathi lapho babefa njengezoni ezingaphelele.

"Ukuqonda kwethu le ndima ukuthi, umphostoli, efisa ukuchaza umehluko omkhulu phakathi kwalabo abavuka enkazimulweni, okungukuthi, kwabangcwele, uboleke ukuqhathanisa nemizimba yasezulwini, ithi, "Enye inkazimulo yelanga, enye inkazimulo yenyanga, enye inkazimulo yezinkanyezi." Futhi efisa futhi ukusifundisa umehluko phakathi kwalabo abayoza ovukweni, ngaphandle kokuzihlanza kulokhu kuphila, okungukuthi, izoni, waboleka umfanekiso ezintweni zasemhlabeni, ethi, “Kukhona inyama eyodwa yezinyoni, enye yezinhlanzi . ”  Ngoba izinto zasezulwini ziqhathaniswa ngokufanele nabangcwele, nezinto zasemhlabeni nezoni.  Lezi zinkulumo zenziwa ukuphendula labo abaphika ukuvuswa kwabafileyo, okungukuthi, ukuvuka kwemizimba. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf04.vi.v.iii.x.html

UDe Principiis, Book 3, On the End of the World, p801 pdf, ikhasi #762

Le ndima ethokozisayo. Lokhu kungukuqala kokukhulunywa komqondo wokuthi ukuguqulwa komzimba womoya kuzohamba kancane, (ngokwemfundiso yamanje yoFakazi BakaJehova), yize i-1 Korion 15: I-51-52 ikhuluma “sonke sizoshintshwa, mzuzu, ngokuqwayiza kwamehlo, ngesikhathi secilongo lokugcina ”. Noma kunjalo kusabhekiselwa ovukweni emhlabeni, hhayi ezulwini.

“Ngentando yoMdali wayo, futhi ngesikhathi esimisiwe, izobuyiselwa ekuphileni; nokuthi okwesibili kuzokwenzeka ushintsho kuyo, ukuze lokho ekuqaleni okwakuyinyama (kwakhiwa) okuvela enhlabathini yasemhlabeni, okwathi kamuva kwachithwa ukufa, kwaphinde kwashintshwa kwaba uthuli nomlotha (“Ngokuba uluthuli,” kuthiwa, “futhi uzobuyela othulini”), uzophinde avuswe emhlabeni, futhi emva kwalokhu, ngokuya ngokufaneleka komphefumulo ohlala ngaphakathi, aqhubekele enkazimulweni yomzimba womoya. Kulesi simo-ke, kufanele sicabange ukuthi yonke le nto yethu yomzimba izolethwa, lapho zonke izinto zizomiswa kabusha esimweni sobunye, nalapho uNkulunkulu ezoba yikho konke kubo bonke. Futhi lo mphumela kumele uqondwe njengowulethwayo, hhayi ngokuzumayo, kodwa kancane kancane, kancane kancane, ukubona ukuthi inqubo yokuchibiyela nokulungisa izokwenzeka ngokungacaci ezimeni ngazinye ngesikhathi sokuphela kweminyaka engenakubalwa nengalinganiswanga, eminye idlula eminye, futhi ilinde ngenkambo esheshayo ebheke ekupheleleni, kanti abanye baphinde balandele eduze, kanti abanye babuyele emuva ibanga elide; ngakho-ke, ngemiyalo eminingi engenakubalwa yezidalwa eziqhubekayo ezibuyisana noNkulunkulu zisuka esimweni sobutha, ekugcineni kufinyelelwa isitha sokugcina, esibizwa ngokufa, ukuze naso sibhujiswe, singabe sisaba yisitha . ” 

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf04.vi.v.iv.viii.html

Ngokumelene neCelsus, Book 2, Isahluko LVI, (p1044 pdf, ikhasi #1004)

Kuyafaneleka ukusho ukuthi amaKristu okuqala abengeke akulungele ukufa njengabafela ukholo ukube bebengakholelwa ngokuqinile ukuvuka kukaKristu kwabafileyo.

“Imfundiso ababengeke bayifundise ngesibindi esinjalo ukube babesungule uvuko lukaJesu kwabafileyo; futhi nabo, ngasikhathi sinye, abagcinanga nje ngokulungiselela abanye ukudelela ukufa, kodwa futhi baba ngabokuqala ukubonisa ukungazinaki kwabo okwethusayo. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf04.vi.ix.ii.lv.html

Ngokumelene neCelsus, iNcwadi 2, Isahluko LXXVII, (p1071 pdf, ikhasi #1031)

Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi lokhu kufakazela ukuthi nange-3 yokuqalard Ngekhulu leminyaka AD amaJuda ayesakholelwa ovukweni lwasemhlabeni lokuphila okuphakade.

“Isahluko LXXVII. Ngemuva kwalokhu umJuda uyaphawula, ngokusobala ngokuhambisana nenkolelo yamaJuda: “Sithemba impela ukuthi luyoba khona uvuko lomzimba, nokuthi sizojabulela impilo engunaphakade; futhi isibonelo nobuciko balokhu kuzoba nguYena othunyelwe kithi, futhi ozobonisa ukuthi akukho okungenzeki kuNkulunkulu. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf04.vi.ix.ii.lxxvi.html

Ngokumelene neCelsus, Book 5, Isahluko XXII, (p1306 pdf, ikhasi #1267)

Lapha futhi (njengoba kwenzeka kuTertullian) kubhekiselwa eqenjini lamaKristu ayesukile (kumbono ka-Origen) ekufundisweni kwemibhalo ephathelene nendaba yovuko.

“Isahluko XXII. Makungabikho-muntu, nokho, asole ukuthi, ngokukhuluma njengathi, singabalabo ababizwa ngempela ngamaKrestu, kepha ababekela eceleni imfundiso yovuko njengoba ifundiswa emiBhalweni. Ngoba laba bantu abakwazi, kuze kufike lapho kusebenza khona imigomo yabo, bangaqinisekisa ukuthi isiqu noma isihlahla esimila sivela okusanhlamvu kakolweni, noma yini enye (eyayiphonswa emhlabathini); kanti thina, esikholwa ukuthi lokho “okuhlwanyelwe” “akuvuswanga” ngaphandle kokuthi kufe, nokuthi akuhlwanyelwanga lowo mzimba ozoba khona (ngokuba uNkulunkulu uwunika umzimba njengokuthanda kwakhe, uwukhulisa ungonakali ekugcineni kwawo Uhlwanyelwa unokonakala; kuthi emva kokuhlwanyelwa kwakho ungenanhlonipho, uwukhulise enkazimulweni; kuthi emva kokuhlwanyelwa kwakho kunobuthakathaka, uwukhulise emandleni; futhi emva kokuhlwanyelwa komzimba wemvelo, uwukhulisa ungowomoya), - siyazilonda zombili imfundiso yeSonto likaKristu nobukhulu besithembiso saphezulu, okufakazela nokuthi kungenzeka ukufezeka kwayo hhayi ngokugomela nje, kodwa ngezimpikiswano; ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf04.vi.ix.v.xxii.html

 

UHippolytus waseRoma: Okuhlukahlukene - Kubhalwe c. 220 AD - c. 235 AD

Umfundi unaka ukuthi eminye imibhalo ebhalwe kuye njengamanje kubandakanya neNcwadi V engezansi ayinakufakazelwa ukuthi ngeyakhe. Ikhophi kuphela elatholakala ku-1842 ngaphandle kwegama lomlobi. Noma kunjalo, le midwebo yale mibhalo ibonakala ivumelana ngokuphelele nemibono ekhona ngalesi sikhathi, ngaphandle kokungafi komphefumlo.

Ukuphikwa kwakho konke okuphathelene nalokhu: Incwadi V, Ukuchazwa Okuqhubekayo kwe-Heresy yeNaasseni: (ANF05 p139 pdf)

Lesi sicaphuno sibhalwe ngokumelene noNaasseni owathi yikuphi okucashunwe kulokhu okulandelayo, umlobi wokuqala (uma ngempela uHippolytus) angavumelani nakho. Kulesi sifinyeto lo mbhali uthatha umbono wokuthi ukhombisa ukuphambuka okwandayo okuvela ezimfundisweni zikaKristu zokuqala ngamaqembu ku-3 yakuqalard Iminyaka yokwethula imiqondo ngovuko eyayizoba ubuKhrestu obujwayelekile, kepha ngaleso sikhathi yayithathwa njengeyindabuko.

"Abafileyo bayoqala ukuphuma emathuneni, okungukuthi, okuvela kwimizimba yasemhlabeni, ukuzalwa kabusha ngokomoya, hhayi okomzimba. Lokhu, yena [Naasseni] uthi, uvuko olwenzeka ngesango lezulu, athi ngalo, bonke abangangeni bahlala befile. Wona amaFrygians, kodwa, uthi, ayaqinisekisa futhi ukuthi yona (le ndoda), njengomphumela woshintsho, (iba) unkulunkulu. Ngoba, uthi, uba ngunkulunkulu, uma esevukile kwabafileyo, uyongena ezulwini ngesango lalolu hlobo. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf05.iii.iii.iii.iv.html

Ukuphikwa kwayo yonke incwadi: The Book IX - Isahluko XXII Ukukholelwa kwe-Esseni Ovukweni: (ANF05 p347 pdf)

Kule khotheshini abakwa-Esseni bakhonjiswa futhi bakholelwa enyameni evuka futhi ovukweni, kodwa ukuthi babeyixube nefilosofi nezinkolelo zamaGrikhi. UHippolytus, uphakamisa ukuthi ama-Esseni anenkolelo efanayo nale ayenzayo, yokuthi umphefumulo awufi.

“Isahluko XXII. — Ukukholelwa kwe-Esseni Ovukweni; Isistimu Yabo Iyisivuseleli.

Manje imfundiso yovuko nayo isithole ukusekelwa phakathi lezi; ngoba bayavuma bobabili ukuthi inyama izovuka futhi, futhi ukuthi ibe ngesokungafi, ngendlela efanayo njengoba umphefumulo usuvele ungonakali. Futhi bayazilondolozela ukuthi umphefumulo, lapho uhlukaniswe empilweni yamanje, (usuka) ungene endaweni eyodwa, enomoya omncane futhi okhanyayo, lapho, bathi, it phumula kuze kubehluleli. Futhi le ndawo amaGrikhi ayeyazi ngokuzwa, futhi ayibiza ngokuthi “Iziqhingi Zababusisiwe.” Futhi kuneminye imithetho yalokhu amaGreek amaningi ayabile, ngakho-ke kwesinye isikhathi ayakha eyawo imibono ”.

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf05.iii.iii.vii.xxiii.html

 

Ukuphikisa kwabo bonke Abasizi: INcwadi IX - Isahluko XXIII, Olunye Uhlangothi lwe-Esseni: AbaFarisi: (ANF05 p348 pdf)

Lokhu kungubufakazi bokuthi abaFarisi babekholelwa ovukweni, ukuvuka kwenyama futhi bakwenza lokho ekuqaleni kwe-3rd Ngekhulu le-AD.

"Nabo futhi bayavuma ukuthi kukhona uvuko lwenyama, futhi lowo mphefumulo ungafi, nokuthi kuzoba khona isahlulelo nokuqothuka, nokuthi abalungileyo ngeke babonakale, kodwa ukuthi ababi bazokhuthazelela isijeziso somlilo ongapheli ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf05.iii.iii.vii.xxiv.html

 

Ukuphikisa kwabo bonke Abasizi: INcwadi IX, Isahluko XXIV, AbaSadusi: (ANF05 p349 pdf)

Lokhu kungubufakazi bokuthi abaSadusi bengakholelwa ovukweni futhi basabambe le nkolelo ku-3 yokuqalard Ngekhulu le-AD.

"Futhi bayakuphika ukuthi kukhona uvuko hhayi lwenyama kuphela, kodwa futhi bacabanga ukuthi umphefumulo awuqhubeki emva kokufa. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf05.iii.iii.vii.xxv.html

 

UMethodius: Okubhaliwe c.300 AD - c.312AD:

Kusuka kwinkulumo ekuvusweni: Ingxenye I (ANF06 p830 pdf)

Lapha iphuzu lenziwa ngendima kaPawulu ku-1 Korion 15 ukuthi umzimba wasezulwini \ usemzimba kodwa awunakho ukonakala.

"Ngoba umfanekiso womhlaba esiwuthwele yilokhu," Uwuthuli, ubuyela othulini. "2883 Kepha umfanekiso wezulu ukuvuka kwabafileyo nokungonakali, ukuze kuthi, njengoba noJesu wavuswa kwabafileyo ngenkazimulo kaYise, nathi kufanele sihambe ngokuphila okusha.2884 Kepha uma umuntu ebecabanga ukuthi isithombe somhlaba siyinyama uqobo, kepha isithombe sasezulwini omunye umzimba ongokomoya ngaphandle kwenyama; aqale acabangele ukuthi uKristu, umuntu osezulwini, lapho Ebonakala, ephethe isimo esifanayo sezitho zomzimba ofanayo nomzimba ofanayo nowethu, ngalo futhi lowo, owayengesuye umuntu, waba ngumuntu, ukuthi “njengoba ku-Adamu bonke bafa , kanjalo-ke kuKristu bonke bayokwenziwa baphile. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf06.xi.v.i.html

I-Lactantius: Ibhaliwe c.303 AD - c.311 AD

Izikhungo Zaphezulu: Book VII “Of a Happy Life” Isahluko XXII (ANF07 p484)

Umongo wale sicaphuni ukhombisa ngokusobala ukuthi uvuko lwalusalindeleke ukuthi lubuyelwe emhlabeni ngalesi sikhathi emlandweni.

“Kepha uma sigcizelela imfundiso yovuko, futhi sifundisa ukuthi imiphefumulo izobuyela kwenye impilo, ingazikhohlwa bona, kodwa inomqondo nengqondo efanayo, sihlangabezana nalokhu kuphikisana: Iminyaka eminingi manje isidlulile; Yimuphi umuntu owake wavuka kwabafileyo, ukuze ngesibonelo sakhe sikholwe ukuthi kungenzeka? Kepha uvuko alwenzeki ngenkathi ukungalungi kusekhona. Ngoba kulomhlaba abantu babulawa ngobudlova, ngenkemba, ngokuqamekela, ngezibi, futhi bavakashelwa ngokulimala, nokuswela, nokuboshwa, ngokuhlukunyezwa, nangama-proscription. Unezela kulokhu ukuthi ukulunga kuyazondwa, ukuthi bonke abafisa ukulandela uNkulunkulu abaphathwa nje ngenzondo, kodwa bahlukunyezwa ngakho konke ukuthukwa, futhi bahlukunyezwa ngezinhlobo eziningi zezijeziso ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf07.iii.ii.vii.xxii.html

 

U-Eusebius Pamphilius: Kubhalwe c. 310 AD - c. 341 AD

U-Eusebius wayengumeluleki kaConstantine the Great, yingakho kudingeka ukuthi kubhekwe lapho kufundwa imibono ka-Eusebius.

U-Eusebius lapha ubambelela ovukweni lwabafileyo, kodwa futhi ukhombisa ukuthi ukungafi komphefumlo kwaba imfundiso esezingeni eliphakeme. Ekulandiseni okukhulunywa ngunina kaConstantine ulandisa ngokufa kwakhe njengokwenyukela ezulwini, okungenzeka ukuthi kwakuyisitatimende sezepolitiki esakhelwe ukugcina u-Eusebius ephephile kunalokho ayikholelwayo. Noma kunjalo kubonakala sengathi le mfundiso yamukelwa kabanzi ngalesi sikhathi.

Umlando weSonto, Isahluko XXVI, uMandander the sorcerer (NPNF2-01)
"Futhi empeleni kwakuyindlela yobudimoni yokuzama, ngabathakathi abanjalo, ababethatha igama lamaKristu, ukungcolisa imfihlakalo enkulu yobunkulunkulu ngobuciko bemilingo, nangabo ukwenza izimfundiso zeSonto kube inhlekisa. ukungafi komphefumlo nokuvuka kwabafileyo. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iii.viii.xxvi.html

Umlando weSonto, Isahluko XLVI, Ukuthi wayenza kanjani intando yakhe futhi wafa eseneminyaka engu-8 ubudala [kubhekiswa ku-Helena, umama kaConstantine]

"Lowo obusisiwe kathathu wabonakala sengathi akafanga, kepha wabona ushintsho lwangempela futhi wasuka emhlabeni waba yinyama yasezulwini, ngoba umphefumulo wakhe, njengoba wawuphinde waba yinto engonakali futhi eyingelosi, wamukelwa phambi kukaSiour wakhe."

Source:  https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iv.vi.iii.xlvi.html

UCyril waseJerusalema: Ibhaliwe c.350 AD

Lapha sibona ushintsho olucashile lokufundisa ngokuhambisana nesitatimende sika-Eusebius mayelana nonina kaConstantine.

                Isifundo IV: Kumaphoyinti Ayishumi Wemfundiso (NPNF2-07)

“Kovuko.

  1. Ngiyakuncenga, ngicela, ngalo mzimba, futhi uqonde ukuthi uzovuswa kwabafileyo, wahlulelwe ngalo mzimba. Kepha uma kukhona okucabangayo ngokungakholwa kwakho ngokungathi akwenzeki, yahlulela ngezinto ezingabonwayo ngokwenzeka kuwe. Ngoba ngitshele; eminyakeni eyikhulu eyedlule noma ngaphezulu, cabanga ukuthi wawukuphi wena uqobo lwakho: futhi ususuka entweni enomzuzwana futhi engasho lutho usukhule kangaka, futhi unobuhle obukhulu kangaka735. Yini-ke? Akakwazi Lowo owaletha okungekho ukuba khona, avuse futhi lokho osekuvele kukhona futhi sekubolile736? Lowo ovusa ummbila, ohlwanyelwa ngenxa yethu, njengalokhu ufa unyaka nonyaka, -Ngabe uzokuba nobunzima ekusivuseni, ngenxa yalowo mmbila ovuthiwe737? Uyabona ukuthi izihlahla zimi kanjani manje izinyanga eziningi ngaphandle kwezithelo noma amaqabunga: kepha lapho ubusika sebudlulile babuye bavele baphile futhi kube sengathi bavela kwabafileyo738: ngeke yini sibuyele ekuphileni kakhulu futhi kalula? Induku kaMose yaguqulwa ngentando kaNkulunkulu yaba yimvelo engajwayelekile yenyoka: futhi umuntu, owela ekufeni, angeke abuyiselwe kuye futhi?
  2. Ungalaleli labo abathi lo mzimba awuvuswa; ngokuba ivukile, no-Isaya ungufakazi, lapho ethi: Abafileyo bayovuka, nabasemathuneni bavuke739: futhi ngokukaDaniel, abaningi babo abalele othulini lomhlaba bayovuka, abanye bavukele ukuphila okuphakade, abanye ihlazo laphakade.740. Kepha noma ukuvuka kuvamile kubantu bonke, uvuko alufani kubo bonke; Amaqembu Ezingelosi; kodwa izoni, ukuze babekezelele kuze kube phakade ukuhlupheka kwezono zabo. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf207.ii.viii.html

 

UGregory waseNyssa: Obhaliwe c.380 AD

Kuyajabulisa ukwazi ukuthi sekwedlule isikhathi njenge-4th Ikhulu leminyaka kwakusekhona abanye ababambelela emfundisweni kaKristu ngovuko. Kuphinde kube yisitatimende esicace bha sokuphelisa lolu phenyo.

Imisebenzi yefilosofi: Emphefumulweni naseVukweni (NPNF2-05)

“Bonke baphendulwa yiNcazelo yoVuko, isb ukubuyiselwa komuntu esimweni sakhe sokuqala. ”

Source: https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf205.x.iii.i.html

 

Isiphetho

Ekuphetheni, izinkomba ezingenhla zisekela iziphetho ezifinyelelwe ekuhlolweni kwethu okungokomBhalo kwesihloko esithi “Ithemba Lesintu Ngekusasa, lizoba kuphi?” Ezingxenyeni zokuqala eziyisithupha zalolu chungechunge. Le ndatshana inikeza ubufakazi obengeziwe bokuthi ngempela iBhayibheli lifundisa ngovuko lwasemhlabeni, ngalabavuko abuyela emizimbeni engafi yenyama.

Ngokucaphuna izingcaphuno ezikhethiwe, siyabona ukuthi amaKhristu asezingeni eliphambili abambelele kule mfundiso kuye kwi-4 yokuqalath Ikhulu leminyaka.

Kodwa-ke, njengoba isikhathi sihamba kusukela ekufeni kukaMpostoli (uJohn) wokugcina we-1st Century, ngokuqinisekile kusukela maphakathi ne-2nd Emakhulwini eminyaka kuqhubeke kwakukhona abantu namaqembu ajabulisa eminye imibono ngovuko abajwayele ukubambelela ezinkolweni zobuKhrestu ezivamile.

Kusuka ekuqaleni kwe-3rd AmaKhristu asezingeni eliphakeme njengekhulu lababhali abacashunwe ngenhla (uMathetes noTertullian) baqala ukwamukela ukuthi umphefumulo awufi, yize kungacaci ukuthi lokho ababekuqonda ukuthi umphefumulo kuyavumelana yini nezimfundiso zanamuhla zobuKhrestu.

Ngenkathi ukushintshwa kungakhonjiswa ngokuphelele kulezi izingcaphuno ezibhaliwe, ukwamukelwa kwendawo yasezulwini kwavama ngesikhathi se-4th ngekhulu leminyaka kulandela ukwenziwa kobuKristu njengenkolo yesizwe nguMbusi wamaqaba uConstantine. UConstantine wahlanganisa iMithraism nezinye izinkolelo zobuqaba ebuKristwini ngomzamo wokuhlanganisa umbuso wakhe, owemukelwa kancane kancane iningi lamaKristu angaleso sikhathi. Ukucaphuna kuka-Eusebius ngoMama kaConstantine ukuvuselwa ezulwini kubonakala sekuthandile nenkolelo eyinhloko. Kubonakala futhi kuphawula ukuqala kwethemba lokungena ezulwini kwamukelwe kubuKristu obukhulu.

 

 

 

Isithasiselo: Izikhombo eziphikisanayo:

Izethenjwa ezilandelayo zithathwa njengezimbi ngumlobi kulezi zimangalo ngokusho kweScholars ukuthi zabhalwa ngumbhali ohlonishwayo. Izizathu zokuzicabanga njengezimbi (ie izichibiyelo zakamuva) zinikezwa. Kodwa-ke, ngenhloso yokuphelela nokugwema ukumangalelwa kokukhethwa kwezingcaphuno, kufakiwe lapha ukuze abafundi benze imiqondo yabo ibe phezulu.

Izingcezu zePapias: Okubhaliwe c.110 AD? - c.140 AD?

Izicucu ziqukethe imibhalo evela emibhalweni yakamuva abathi bayicaphuna kuPapias.

Isahluko V “Njengokusho kwabaphathi, 20 labo abathathwa njengabafanele ukuhlala ezulwini bayokuya khona, abanye bayojabulela ubumnandi bePharadesi, kanti abanye bazodla ubukhosi bomuzi;21 "

 

Lesi siqeshana sinikezwe uPapius okungenani isazi esisodwa, kodwa sibuye siveze igama negama elithi "Irenaeus, ngokumelene ne-Heresies Book V Isahluko 36". Kuzona zozimbili lezi zigameko umyalezo obhalwe ngamagama uphikisana nokuqonda okutholakala kweminye imibhalo kaPapias no-Irenaeus.

Source: Bheka Imibhalo YamaKristu Okuqala

U-Irenaeus - Ngokumelene ne-Heresies: Ibhalwe c.180 AD - c.202 AD

U-Irenaeus - ngokumelene ne-Heresies Book V Isahluko XXXVI

Azikho izingcaphuno ezingeziwe embhalweni oyinhloko engxenyeni ye-Irenaeus, kusukela esahlukweni XXXVI njengoba ingenayo indlela efanayo yokubhala futhi ifundeka sengathi kungumbhali ofanayo nezahluko ezedlule, okusho ukuthi kubonakala sengathi iyangezelelwa kamuva. Akuvumelani futhi nalokho u-Irenaeus akubhalile ezahlukweni ezicashunwe emzimbeni oyinhloko wombhalo walolu phenyo olungenhla, noma umbhalo owandulele ngaphambi nje kwesilinganiso.

Umbhalo owedlule uthi “Kepha lapho le ndlela [yamanje] yezinto idlula, futhi umuntu enziwe musha, futhi echuma esimweni esingenakonakala, ukuze kuvinjelwe ithuba lokuba mdala, lapho-ke kuyoba khona izulu elisha nomhlaba omusha , lapho umuntu omusha ezohlala khona [ngokuqhubekayo], njalo enengxoxo entsha noNkulunkulu. Futhi njengoba (noma, ukuthi) lezi zinto ziyoqhubeka njalo zingapheli, u-Isaya uthi, “Ngokuba njengamazulu amasha nomhlaba omusha engikwenzayo kuqhubeka emehlweni ami,” usho uJehova, “kanjalo iyakuma inzalo yakho negama lakho . ”

Ngemuva kokubhala egunyeni lakhe nelombhalo, khona-ke umbhalo uvele ushintshe isitayela futhi okungenani ngombono walo mbhali ubonakale ufakwa emuva kwesikhathi njengoba uheha izimfundiso “zabaphathi”. Noma yimuphi umfundi udinga ukuzinika isikhathi sokufunda wonke umongo waleli caphuna ukukuqonda ngokuphelele lokhu.

Umbhalo obonakala ukhathazekile (ngoba ufundwa njengokufakwa kamuva, mhlawumbe kwi-4th ukuze 6th ikhulu lapho likopishwa) iyaqhubeka nokufunda:

“Futhi njengoba abaphathi besho, Lapho-ke labo ababonwa njengabakufanele ukuhlala ezulwini, bayakuya khona, abanye bayojabulela ubumnandi beparadesi, kanti abanye bayoba nobukhazikhazi bomuzi; ngoba kuyo yonke indawo uMsindisi uyabonakala njengokuboniswa yilabo abambona. ”  

Futhi

"I-2. [Futhi bathi, phezu kwalokho], ukuthi kukhona umehluko phakathi kokuhlala kwalabo abakhiqiza ikhulu, nelalabo abakhiqiza ngamashumi ayisithupha, nelalabo abakhiqiza okuphindwe kathathu. eyokuqala izothathwa inyuselwe ezulwini, owesibili uzohlala epharadesi, owokugcina uzohlala edolobheni; futhi ngenxa yalokhu iNkosi yamemezela, Ekhaya likaBaba wami kunezindawo eziningi zokuhlala. Johane 14: 2 ”.

Source: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.ix.vii.xxxvii.html

 

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