Ukuhlobanisa Isiprofetho SikaMesiya SikaDaniyeli 9: 24-27 Nomlando Wezwe

Ukuhlonza Isixazululo - iyaqhubeka (2)

6. Izinkinga Zokulandelana KwamaKhosi amaMediya-Persia, Isixazululo

Indima okudingeka siyiphenye ukuthola isisombululo ngu-Ezra 4: 5-7.

U-Ezra 4: 5 usitshela "Ngokuqasha abeluleki kubo ukuze banciphise amacebo abo ngazo zonke izinsuku zikaKoresi inkosi yasePheresiya kuze kube sekubuseni kukaDariyo inkosi yasePheresiya."

Kwakunezinkinga ekwakhiweni kabusha kwethempeli kusuka kuKoresi kuye kuDariyu inkosi enkulu yasePheresiya. Ukufundwa kwevesi 5 kukhombisa ngokusobala ukuthi okungenani kwakukhona inkosi eyodwa noma ngaphezulu phakathi kukaKoresi noDariyu. Isandiso sesiHeberu esihunyushwe lapha ngokuthi “Phansi ku”, futhi kungahunyushwa ngokuthi "kuya ku", "kuze kufike". Yonke le misho ikhombisa ukuhamba kwesikhathi phakathi kokubusa kukaKoresi nokubusa kukaDariyasi.

Umlando wezwe ukhomba uCambyses (II) indodana kaKoresi, esikhundleni sakhe uyise abe yinkosi eyodwa. UJosephus naye ukusho lokhu.

U-Ezra 4: 6 uyaqhubeka “Futhi ekubuseni kuka-Ahashiveroshi, ekuqaleni kokubusa kwakhe, babhala isimangalo ngokumelene nabakhileyo bakwaJuda naseJerusalema. ”

UJosephus ube eseqhubeka echaza incwadi eyabhalela abaseCambyses eholele ekutheni umsebenzi wethempelini naseJerusalema umiswe. (Bheka “Imikhosi YamaJuda ”, Incwadi XI, isahluko 2, isigaba 2). Ngakho-ke, kunengqondo ukuthola igama lika-Ahashiveroshi wevesi 6 neCambyses (II). Njengoba abusa iminyaka eyisishiyagalombili kuphela, akakwazi ukuba ngu-Ahashiveroshi wencwadi ka-Esteri owabusa okungenani iminyaka eyi-8 (U-Esteri 12: 3). Ngaphandle kwalokho, inkosi, ehlukahlukene eyaziwa ngokuthi uBardiya / Smerdis / the Magi, yabusa isikhathi esingaphansi konyaka, yashiya isikhathi esincane kakhulu sokuba incwadi enjalo ithunyelwe futhi impendulo itholwe, futhi ngokusobala ayikwazi ukufanisa no-Ahashiveroshi ka-Esteri.

U-Ezra 4: 7 uyaqhubeka “Futhi, ezinsukwini zika-Aritahishashita, uBhishamu, uMithadathi, uTabetheweli nabanye ozakwabo ababhalela u-Aritahashashita inkosi yasePheresiya ”.

U-Aritahishashita kaEzra 4: 7 bekungaba nengqondo uma simveza njengoDarius I (Omkhulu), kodwa-ke, kungenzeka ukuthi abe yinkosi ebizwa ngokuthi yiMagi / Bardiya / Smerdis. Ngani? Ngoba ukulandisa okukuEzra 4:24 kuyaqhubeka nokusho ukuthi umphumela wale ncwadi waba “Ngaleso sikhathi lapho umsebenzi wendlu kaNkulunkulu, eyayiseJerusalema, wema; futhi yaqhubeka yaze yaba unyaka wesibili wokubusa kukaDariyu inkosi yasePheresiya. ” Lokhu kubhalwa kwamagama kukhombisa ukuthi kwakukhona ushintsho lweNkosi phakathi kwale Artaxerxes no Darius. Futhi, uHagayi 1 ukhombisa ukuthi isakhiwo kabusha ku-2nd Unyaka kaDariyu. AmaJuda ayengeke alokothe ​​alwe nokuyalelwa yiNkosi anikezwe unyaka ngaphambi nje kokuba iNkosi kunguDariyasi. Kodwa-ke, izimo zokushintsha kobukhosi kusuka eBardya kuya kuDariyasi kuzonikeza amaJuda ithemba lokuthi uzoba nesibindi.

Ngenkathi ingenakushiwo ngokwezigaba, qaphela igama libuye lasho "Mithredath". Ukuthi wayezobhalela iKosi futhi ifundwe kwakuzobonisa ukuthi wayeyisikhulu sasePheresiya sohlobo oluthile. Lapho sifunda u-Ezra 1: 8 sithola umgcinimafa ngesikhathi sikaKoresi wabizwa nangokuthi uMithredath, ngokuqinisekile kwakungeyona into eyenzekile. Manje lesi sikhulu kungenzeka ukuthi sisaphila kuphela eminyakeni eyi-17-18 kamuva ekuqaleni kokubusa kukaDariyu, okusikisela ukuthi isixazululo sabuye sabizwa ngokuthi u-Aritahishashita kuEzra. Kodwa-ke, bekungeke kwenzeke ukuthi isikhulu sibe yinye efanayo, eminye eyengeziwe (8 + 8 + 1 + 36 + 21) = iminyaka engama-74 kamuva. (Ukungeza ukubusa kukaKoresi, uCambyses, uMagi, uDariyu, uXerxes ukuze afike ku-Aritahishashita I).

Kuyamangaza uCtesias, isazi-mlando esingumGrikhi esivela cishe kuma-400BC sithi “iMagus ibusa ngaphansi kweTanyoxarkes ”[i] , ebizwayo ifana kakhulu ne-Artaxerxes futhi uqaphele ukuthi iMagus ibusa ngaphansi kwelinye igama, igama lesihlalo sobukhosi. I-Xenophon inika negama elithi Magus njenge-Tanaoxares, ifana kakhulu futhi futhi kungenzeka ukuthi inkohliso ye-Artaxerxes.

Siphinde saphakamisa lo mbuzo:

Ingabe lo Dariyasi kufanele akhonjwe njengoDarius I (Hystapes), noma uDariyu owalandela, njengoDariyu wasePheresiya ngesikhathi / ngemuva kwesikhathi sikaNehemiya? (UNehemiya 12:22). Ngalesi sixazululo nokuvumelana nokukhonjwa kwegama elithi Darius okukhulunywa ngalo evesini 5 kuqondwa ukuthi nguDariyu I, hhayi uDariyu owalandela.

Isixazululo: Yebo

7. Ukulandelana Komphristi Omkhulu kanye nobude benkonzo - Isixazululo

Lokhu kulula ukukhombisa ukuthi ikhambi lisebenza kanjani kunokuchaza, kepha sizozama ukuchaza kahle lapha.

Ngokulandelana okufushane kwamakhosi asePheresiya, ukulandelana okulingene kakhulu kwabaPristi abaKhulu kungakhiwa. Lesi simo sibheka amaphuzu omaki, leyo mibhalo lapho kukhona khona Inkosi eyaziwayo nonyaka wokubusa kweNkosi, kubhalwe igama lomPristi Ophakeme.

UJozadak

Njengoba u-Ezra wayeyindodana yesibili kaSeraya, umPristi Ophakeme owabulawa uNebukadinesari izinyanga ezimbalwa kuphela ngemuva kokuwa kweJerusalema, u-Ezra kwakufanele azalwe ngokuwa kweJerusalema (2 AmaKhosi 25:18). Lokhu futhi kusho ukuthi umfowabo omdala, izibulo, uJehozadak, okungenzeka ukuthi esondele eminyakeni engama-50 noma ekuqaleni kweminyaka engama-60 kungenzeka ukuthi washona ngaphambi kokubuya eBhabhiloni, kungenzeka ukuthi wazalwa okungenani iminyaka emi-2 ngaphambili, mhlawumbe nangaphezulu. UJeshua noma uJoshua wayeyindodana kaJehosadaki futhi ngenxa yalokho kungenzeka ukuthi wayesemncane ngeminyaka engama-40 lapho ebuyela kwaJuda.

UJeshua / Joshua

Lesi sixazululo sinoJeshua njengeminyaka engaba ngu-43 ubudala lapho ebuya ekudingisweni. Ukukhonjwa kokugcina kukaJeshua ku-2nd unyaka kaDariyu, ngaleso sikhathi wayeyobe eseneminyaka engaba ngu-61 (Ezra 5: 2). UJeshua akazange akhulunywe lapho kugcwaliswa iThempeli kwabangu-6th unyaka kaDariyu ngakho-ke kungabhekwa ukuthi mhlawumbe wayesanda kufa futhi uJoyakimi wayesengumPristi Ophakeme.

Joiaki

Ukuthatha iminyaka yobudala engama-20 ukuthi umPristi Ophakeme abe nendodana yokuqala, kubeka indodana kaJeshua, uJoyakimi, cishe eneminyaka engama-23 ubudala lapho ebuyela kwaJuda e-1st Unyaka kaKoresi.

UJoakimi ubizwa njengoPristi Ophakeme nguJosephus kwabangu-7th unyaka ka-Aritahishashita (aka Darius kulesi simo). Lokhu kwakungemva kokuqedwa kweThempeli eminyakeni nje emihlanu ngemuva kokukhulunywa ngaye kokugcina kukaJeshua, kwabangu-5th unyaka ka-Aritahishashita noma kaDarius (I), ngasikhathi sini, (uma ezalwa lapho uyise eneminyaka engama-20) wayezoba neminyaka engama-44-45 ubudala. Lokhu kuzonikeza no-Ezra ubukhulu, ngokuba ngumalume kaJoyakimi, ukuze akwazi ukuhola ezinhlelweni zokuqokwa kwenkonzo ethempelini elisanda kuqedwa. Lokhu, ngakho-ke, kunengqondo futhi ukulandisa kukaJosephus mayelana noJoyakimi.

U-Eliyashibi

U-Eliyashibi kuthiwa ungumpristi omkhulu kwabangu-20th unyaka ka-Aritahishashita ngenkathi uNehemiya ezokwakha kabusha izindonga zaseJerusalema (UNehemiya 3: 1). Ukubala ngesisekelo esingaguquki, uma ezalwa lapho uyise wayeneminyaka engama-20, wayezoba neminyaka engama-39 ubudala ngalesi sikhathi. Ukube uqokwe nje, ubaba wakhe, uJoyakimi, ngabe washona eneminyaka engama-57-58 ubudala.

UNehemiya 13: 6, 28 ubhalwe okungenani ama-32nd unyaka ka-Aritahishashita, futhi cishe unyaka noma emibili kamuva futhi kukhombisa ukuthi u-Eliashib wayesengumPristi Ophakeme, kodwa ukuthi uJoyada indodana yakhe, wayenendodana endala ngaleso sikhathi futhi ngenxa yalokho uJoyada wayeneminyaka engaba ngu-34 ubudala njengaphansi ngaleso sikhathi, ngenkathi U-Eliyashibi wayeneminyaka engama-54 ubudala. Ngokusekelwe olwazini mayelana noJoyiada kungenzeka ukuthi wafa ngonyaka olandelayo eneminyaka engama-55.

Joiada

UNehemiya 13:28 ukhuluma ngoJoyada umpristi oMkhulu waba nendodana eyaba ngumkhwenyana kaSanibalati umHoroni. Umongo kaNehemiya 13: 6 ukhombisa ukuthi lesi kwakuyinkathi ngemuva kokubuya kukaNehemiya eBhabhiloni e-32nd Unyaka ka-Aritahishashita. Isikhathi esingashiwongo ngokuhamba kwesikhathi uNehemiya wacela enye ikhefu lokungabikho futhi waphinda wabuyela eJerusalema lapho lo mbuso wezindaba utholwa. Ngokusekelwe kulokhu Joiada kungenzeka ukuthi wayengumPristi Ophakeme kusukela eminyakeni engaba ngu-34, (kwabangu-35th Unyaka kaDariyu / u-Aritahishashita), kuze kube iminyaka engama-66 ubudala.

UJonathan / Johanan / Jehohanan

Ukube uJoada washona eneminyaka engama-66 ubudala ngabe ubesethathelwe indawo yindodana yakhe uJonathan / uJehohanan owayengaba neminyaka engama-50 ubudala ngaleso sikhathi. Ukube waphila waze waba neminyaka engama-70, khona-ke indodana yakhe uJaddua yayiyobe isondele eminyakeni engama-50 lapho iba Umpristi Ophakeme. Kepha uma i-paplovu, indlovu, okuxoxwe ngayo kamuva, izobhalwa kwabangu-14th futhi 17th unyaka kaDarius II, lapho kubhekiselwa kuye uJohanani, kungenzeka ukuthi uJohanan wafa eneminyaka yobudala engama-83 ubudala ngenkathi uJaddua eneminyaka engaba ngu-60-62 ubudala.

Jaddua

UJosephus uthi uJaddua wamukela u-Alexander the Great eJerusalema futhi kungenzeka wayeseminyakeni yama-70 ngalesi sikhathi. UNehemiya 12:22 usitshela ukuthi “amaLevi ezinsukwini zika-Eliyashibi, uJoyada noJohanani noJaduwa aqoshwa njengezinhloko zezindlu zoyise, kanye nabaphristi, phansi kwaze kwaba bukhosi bukaDariyo umPheresiya ”. Isixazululo sethu sinoDarius III (wasePheresiya?) Ukunqotshwa ngu-Alexander the Great.

Kuyaqondakala kuJosephus ukuthi uJaddua washona kungekudala nje ngemuva kokushona kuka-Alexander the Great, ngaleso sikhathi uJaddua wayezoba neminyaka engama-80 ubudala futhi walandelwa yindodana yakhe u-Onias.[Ii]

Ngenkathi eminye iminyaka ephakanyisiwe lapha ingukuqagela, inengqondo. Cishe, izibulo lomPristi Ophakeme, izibulo, ngokuvamile, lalizoshada ngokushesha bese likhula, mhlawumbe lineminyaka engaba ngu-20 ubudala. Indodana eyizibulo nayo yayizoba nezingane ngokushesha okukhulu ukuze iqinisekise ukulandelana koMpristi Ophakeme ngokulandela indodana eyizibulo.

Isixazululo: Yebo

8. Ukuqhathaniswa kwabaPristi namaLevi abuya noZerubabele nabasayine isivumelwano noNehemiya, Isixazululo

Ukufana phakathi kwalolu hlu olubili (sicela ubheke engxenyeni 2, ikhasi 13, 14) akunangqondo ngandlela thile phakathi kokulandelana kwezikhathi zezwe. Uma sithatha unyaka wama-21 ka-Aritahishashita ukuthi abe ngu-Aritahishashita I, lokho kusho ukuthi ama-16 kwabangu-30, okuyingxenye yalabo okuthiwa babuyile ekudingisweni ngonyaka wokuqala kaKoresi besaphila eminyakeni engama-1 kamuva (uKoresi 95 + Cambyses 9 + UDariyu 8 + Xerxes 36 + Artaxerxes 21). Njengoba bonke kungenzeka ukuthi okungenani babeneminyaka engama-21 ubudala ukuba babe abapristi obezobenza babe neminyaka engaphansi kwengu-20 ngonyaka wama-115 ka-Aritahishashita I.

Lokhu ngokusobala akunangqondo. Ngisho nasemhlabeni wanamuhla besingahlupheka ukuthola idlanzana labantu abaneminyaka engu-115 ubudala ezweni elinjenge-USA noma i-UK, yize kuthuthukile kwezokwelapha futhi kukhula nokuphila isikhathi eside engxenyeni yokugcina yama-20th ikhulu leminyaka. 16 phakathi kwesibalo sabantu okungenzeka ukuthi besingaphezulu kwamakhulu ambalwa nje kuphela noma sinenkolelo engaphansi yokukhohlisa.

Kodwa-ke, ngaphansi kwesixazululo esiphakanyisiwe ngalesi sikhathi seminyaka engama-95 sinciphisa safinyelela eminyakeni engama-37, siletha ukusinda kwengxenye yalabo abaqanjwe ezindaweni ezinamandla ahlukile. Uma sicabanga kahle ukuthi bangaphila iminyaka yabo yobudala engama-70 ukube bephilile, ngisho nawo wonke lawo makhulu eminyaka adlule, lokho kuyosho ukuthi ngabe bebekhona phakathi kweminyaka engama-20 kuye kwengama-40 lapho bebuya eBabele beya kwaJuda, futhi besengaseminyakeni yama-60. kufinyelela eminyakeni yabo-70 ema-21st unyaka kaDarius I / Artaxerxes.

Isixazululo: Yebo

9. Igebe leminyaka engama-57 ekulandiseni okuphakathi kukaEzra 6 no-Ezra 7, A Solution

Ukulandisa okukuEzra 6:15 kunikeza usuku luka-3rd usuku lwe-12th Inyanga (Adar) kwezingu-6th Unyaka kaDariyu wokuqedwa kweThempeli.

Ukulandisa okukuEzra 6:19 kunikeza usuku luka-14th usuku lwe-1st inyanga (Nisan), yokuqhutshwa kwePhasika, futhi kunengqondo ukuphetha kubhekisa ku-7th Unyaka kaDariyu futhi kwakuzoba izinsuku ezingama-40 kuphela kamuva futhi ungaphazanyiswa igebe leminyaka engama-57.

Ukulandisa okukuEzra 6:14 kubhala ukuthi amaJuda abuya “Wakha futhi wayiqeda ngenxa yomyalo kaNkulunkulu ka-Israyeli nangenxa yomyalo kaKoresi noDariyu no-Aritahashashita inkosi yasePheresiya”.

Singakuqonda kanjani lokhu? Ekuboneni kokuqala kubonakala sengathi bekukhona nomyalo ovela e-Aritahishashita. Abaningi bacabanga ukuthi lo ngu-Aritahishashita I futhi bamkhomba ngo-Aritahishashita kaNehemiya kanye noNehemiya beza eJerusalema eneminyaka engama-20.th unyaka ngenxa yaleso sinqumo. Kodwa-ke, njengoba sasimisile ngaphambili, uNehemiya akazange athole simemezelo sokuthi kwakhiwe kabusha iThempeli. Wacela imvume yokwakha kabusha izindonga zaseJerusalema. Yini enye esingayiqonda le ndima?

Singayiqonda kangcono le ndima ngokuhlolisisa ukuhunyushwa kombhalo wesiHeberu. Leyo ncazelo ingobuchwepheshe obuncane, kepha ngesiHeberu ukuhlangana noma igama elihlanganayo yincwadi eyaziwa ngokuthi “waw ”. Womabili amagama esiHeberu kaDariyu no-Aritahishashita anawo "Waw" umlingiswa ongaphambi kwe- “Dareyavesh” (obizwa ngokuthi “daw-reh-yaw-vaysh”) nangaphambi kwe- “Artachshashta” ( "Waw" livame ukuhunyushwa ngokuthi “futhi”, kodwa libuye lisho ukuthi “noma”. Ukusetshenziswa kwe- “noma” akusona isenzo esikhethekile, kodwa njenge unyaka ohlukile, ngokufana. Isibonelo kungaba ukuthi ukuxhumana nomuntu obambhalela noma ubhalele noma ukhulume naye mathupha. Enye nenye indlela esebenzayo yokufeza isenzo sokuxhumana. Isibonelo esikhethekile sokwenza kungaba isiphuzo esisodwa samahhala ngokudla kwakho ukuze ukwazi uku-oda ubhiya noma newayini. Awukwazi ukuthola mahhala.

Uma u- “no” ethathelwa indawo ngu “noma”, noma mhlawumbe “noma” noma “futhi” ukuze afunde kangcono ngesiNgisi esimeni njengoba ezinye izazi ziphikisana, lokhu kusasebenza njengesihlanganisi. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kuguqula ngokuzele okushiwo kulo mongo futhi kwenza umqondo ongcono wombhalo. Isisho esithi “UDariyu no-Aritahishashita ” okuqondwa njengabantu ababili abahlukene, kuzobe kusho "UDariyu noma / noma / futhi / owaziwa njengo-Aritahishashita ”, okungukuthi, ukuthi uDariyu no-Aritahishashita ngabantu abafanayo. Lokhu kungaqondwa nokuthi kuhambisana nomongo jikelele ngokulungiselela umfundi ukuguqulwa kokusetshenziswa kwesihloko seNkosi esithola phakathi kokuphela kuka-Ezra 6 no-Ezra 7.

Izibonelo zalokhu ukusetshenziswa kwe "Waw" singabheka kuNehemiya 7: 2, kuphi “Ngabeka icala kuHanani umfowethu, leyo UHananiya umholi wedolobha laseJerusalema, wayeyindoda ethembekile futhi esaba uNkulunkulu ukwedlula abaningi ” kwenza ukuqonda okwengeziwe nge "leyo" kuka "No" njengoba umusho uqhubeka "Yena" kunoku "Bona". Ukufundwa kwale ndima akukho kubi ngokusetshenziswa kwe "No".

Elinye iphuzu ukuthi u-Ezra 6:14 njengoba ehunyushwe njengamanje kwi-NWT nakwezinye izinguqulo ezisetshenziswayo zebhayibheli kuzobonisa ukuthi u-Aritahishashita wakhipha isimemezelo sokuthi kuqeda iThempeli. Kungcono, ukuthatha le Artaxerxes ukuba yi-Artaxerxes yezwe I, kungasho ukuthi iThempeli aliphothulwanga kuze kube yiminyaka engama-20th Unyaka noNehemiya, eminyakeni engaba ngu-57 kamuva. Kodwa ukulandisa kwebhayibheli lapha kuEzra 6 kwenza kucace ukuthi ithempeli laqedwa ekugcineni kwe-6th unyaka kaDariyu futhi wayezosikisela ukuthi imihlatshelo yasungulwa ekuqaleni kwengu-7th unyaka kaDariyu / u-Aritahishashita.

Ukulandisa okukuEzra 7:8 kunikeza usuku luka-5th inyanga ye-7th Unyaka kepha unikeza iKosi njengo-Aritahishashita. Uma uDarius ka-Ezra 6 engabizwa ngokuthi u-Aritahishashita kuEzra 7, njengoba kuveziwe ngaphambili njengodaba, sinesikhala esikhulu kakhulu esingachazeki emlandweni. UDarius I kukholakala ukuthi ubuse eminye iminyaka engama-30, (isiyonke engama-36) elandelwa amaXerxes ngeminyaka engama-21 elandelwa ngu-Artaxerxes I ngeminyaka engu-6 yokuqala. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kuzoba negebe leminyaka engama-57, ekugcineni kwaleyo nkathi u-Ezra wayezoba neminyaka eyi-130. Ukwemukela ukuthi ngemuva kwalesi sikhathi sonke nalesi sikhathi esidala esingakholeki, u-Ezra unquma-ke kuphela ukuhola ukubuya kwamaLevi namanye amaJuda abuyela kwaJuda. Kubuye kungasinaki iqiniso lokuthi kungasho ukuthi yize iThempeli laliphothulwe impilo edlule kubantu abaningi, akukho mnikelo ojwayelekile ethempelini owawusunguliwe.

Kunengqondo kakhulu ukuthi lapho bezwa ukuphothulwa kwethempeli sekwephuze i-6th unyaka kaDariyu / u-Aritahishashita, u-Ezra wacela usizo enkosini yokuvuselela ukufundisa ngomthetho nemihlatshelo kanye nomsebenzi weLevitikusi ethempelini. U-Ezra, lapho enikezwe lolu sizo, wabe esefika izinyanga ezi-4 kuphela eJerusalema kamuva, futhi eneminyaka yobudala engama-73 kuphela, kwabangu-5th inyanga ye-7th unyaka kaDariyu / u-Aritahishashita.

Isixazululo: Yebo

10. UJosephus uqopha futhi alandelana amaKhosi asePheresiya, A Solution

UKoresi

KuJosephus ' Izinto zakudala zamaJuda, Incwadi XI, Isahluko sokuqala ukhuluma ukuthi uKoresi wakhipha umyalo wokuba amaJuda abuyele ezweni lakubo uma efisa futhi akhe kabusha idolobha labo futhi akhe neThempeli lapho lalimi khona ngaphambili. “Nginikeze imvume kumaJuda amaningi ahlala ezweni lakithi ukuthi abuyele ezweni lakubo, abuye bavuselele idolobha labo, futhi bakhe ithempeli likaNkulunkulu eJerusalema endaweni efanayo lapho lalikhona ngaphambili ”[Iii].

Lokhu kuzoqinisekisa ukuqonda kwethu ukuthi isimemezelo esidingidwayo yileso sikaKoresi futhi siyavumelana nesixazululo.

Isixazululo: Yebo

AmaCambyses

Ku, Isahluko 2 para 2,[Iv] ukhomba uCambyses [II] indodana kaKoresi njengeNkosi yasePheresiya ethola incwadi futhi ephendula ethi ayeke amaJuda. Amagama athiwa afana kakhulu no-Ezra 4: 7-24 lapho iKosi ibizwa nge-Aritahishashita.

"Ngenkathi uCambyses efunde le ncwadi, ngokuba emabi ngokwemvelo, wacasuka ngalokho abemtshela kona, futhi wababhalela kanjena: “Inkosi iCambyses, kuRathumus mlobi wezomlando, kuBhelethmus, kuSemellius umbhali, nakwabanye basebenza, bahlala eSamariya naseFenike, ngale ndlela: ngifundile incwadi ebithunyelwe ivela kuwe; futhi ngakhipha umyalo wokuba izincwadi zokhokho bami ziphenywe, futhi kutholakala ukuthi lo muzi bekulokhu kuyisitha samakhosi, nabakhileyo kuwo bavuse iziyaluyalu nezimpi. ”[V].

Phambilini ekuhlolweni kwekhambi, kwatholakala ukuthi leli gama kungenzeka njengoba sathola ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi noma yimaphi amaKhosi amaPheresiya ayengase asebenzise noma abizwe nganoma yiziphi iziqu zikaDariyasi, u-Ahashiveroshi noma u-Aritahishashita. Kodwa-ke, ephuzwini lesi-7 kwahlongozwa ukuthi incwadi ekhonjwe njengothunyelwe e-Artaxerxes kungenzeka ukuthi yayinguBardiya / Smerdis / Magi njengoyifanele kunazo zonke izikhathi, ngesikhathi esifanele futhi efanelekile emicimbini, kanye nesimo sezepolitiki esibusayo.

Ingabe uJosephus uyiqondile kabi iKosi (mhlawumbe i-Artaxerxes embhalweni wayo wesethenjwa) noCambyses?

Ukulandisa kukaJosephus akuvumelani nesixazululo ebeka kangcono incwadi eya kuBardiya / Smerdis / The Magi okungenzeka ukuthi uJosephus wayengayazi. Le nkosi yabusa izinyanga ezimbalwa kuphela (ukulinganisa kuyahluka phakathi kwezinyanga ezintathu nezingu-3).

Bardiya / Smerdis / Magi

Kusahluko 3, para 1,[vi] UJosephus ukhuluma ngabakwaMagi (esaziwa ngokuthi uBardiya noma uSmerdis) isinqumo cishe esingangonyaka kulandela ukubulawa kukaCambyses. Lokhu kuvumelana nekhambi eliphakanyisiwe.

Isixazululo: Yebo

Darius

Ube esekhuluma ngokuqokwa kukaDarius Hystapes ukuba yiNkosi, osekelwa yimindeni eyisikhombisa yamaPheresiya. Kuphawula nokuthi wayenezifundazwe eziyi-127. Lawa maqiniso amathathu atholakala futhi avumelana nencazelo enikezwe u-Ahashiveroshi eNcwadini kaEsteri, esikuvezile ukuthi kwakunguDarius I / Artaxerxes / Ahasuerusi kwisisombululo sethu.

UJosephus ubuye aqinisekise ukuthi uZerubhabhele uvunyelwe nguDariyu ukuthi aqhubeke nokwakha kabusha ithempeli nedolobha laseJerusalema njengokuyalelwa kukaKoresi. “EMVA kokubulawa kukaMagi, okwathi ngokufa kukaCambyses, wahola uhulumeni wamaPheresiya unyaka owodwa, leyo mindeni eyabizwa ngokuthi yimindeni eyisikhombisa yamaPheresiya yamisa uDariyu, indodana kaHystaspes, ukuba abe yinkosi yawo. Kepha yena, eseyimfihlo, wayesenzile isifungo kuNkulunkulu, ukuthi, uma eza kuba yinkosi, wayezothumela zonke izinto zikaNkulunkulu ezaziseBabele ethempelini eJerusalema.[vii]

Kunokungafani ngosuku okwakhiwa ngalo ithempeli. U-Ezra 6: 15 uyinikeza njenge-6th unyaka kaDariyasi ku-3rd ka-Adar kanti ukulandisa kukaJosephus kuyibeka njenge-9th Unyaka kaDariyu ngomhla ka-23rd Adar. Zonke izincwadi zingaphansi kwamaphutha okukopisha, kepha ukulandisa okubhaliwe kukaJosephus, bekungakahlanganisiwe kusetshenziswa iBhayibheli. Ngaphandle kwalokho, amakhophi okuqala awaziwayo aqala ngekhulu le-9 kuya kwele-10 lapho iningi lali-11th ukuze 16th amakhulu eminyaka.

Ekugcineni, kunokwengeziwe okuningana, futhi amakhophi amadala kakhulu amavesi eBhayibheli abukezwa kunanencwadi kaJosephus enezinto ezinqunyelwe. Uma kwenzeka kungqubuzana lo mbhali, lo mbhali wehliselwa embhalweni weBhayibheli.[viii] Enye indlela echaza umehluko ukuthi usuku lwebhayibheli olwalunikiwe lelo lapho iThempeli ngokwalo laliphelele ngokwanele ukwenza iminikelo, kepha usuku lukaJosephus lwalapho sekuqediwe khona ukwakhiwa kwezakhiwo negceke nodonga. Noma iyiphi indlela lokhu akuyona inkinga yesisombululo.

Isixazululo: Yebo

Ama-Xerxes

Kusahluko 5[ix] UJosephus wabhala ukuthi uXerxes indodana kaDariyusi walandela uyise uDarius. Ube esekhuluma ngoJoacim indodana kaJeshua owayengumPristi Ophakeme. Uma bekungumbuso wama-Xerxes khona-ke uJoachim uzoba sesifundeni seminyaka engu-84 noma ngaphezulu, ithuba elincane. Ngaphansi kwekhambi eliphakanyisiwe wayezoba neminyaka engaba ngu-50-68 ubudala ekubuseni kukaDarius esikhathini se-6th unyaka kuya ku-20th unyaka kaDariyu / u-Aritahishashita. Lokhu kuphawulwa kukaJoachim kunengqondo kuphela uma bekubusa uDarius ngokwesisombululo.

Futhi, ukulandisa kukaJosephus kuyangqubuzana nekhambi eliphakanyisiwe, kepha kusiza ukulandelana komPristi Ophakeme kunengqondo uma sikhomba izehlakalo ezichazwe kuXerxes kuDarius.

Imicimbi kanye namagama anikezwe i-7th unyaka wama-Xerxes kuJosephus Isahluko 5 para. 1. Iyafana kakhulu ukulandisa kweBhayibheli kukaEzra 7 kwezingu-7th Unyaka ka-Aritahishashita, isixazululo esinika uDariyu.

Ukusuka kumongo kubukeka sengathi kungunyaka olandelayo (8th) ukuthi uJoacim washona kwathi u-Eliyashibi wangena esikhundleni sakhe ngokusho kukaJosephus eSahlukweni 5, isigaba 5[X]. Lokhu kuhambelana nekhambi.

Ku-25th unyaka kaXerxes uNehemiya uza eJerusalema. (Isahluko 5, isigaba 7). Lokhu akwenzi mqondo njengoba unjalo. UXerxes akafakazelwa omunye umlando ukuthi wabusa okungenani iminyaka engama-25. Ayifani ngisho ne-akhawunti esebhayibhelini uma uXerxes kwakunguDarius noma u-Artaxerxes I. Ngakho-ke, njengoba lesi sitatimende sikaJosephus singaqondaniswa nanoma yimuphi umlando owaziwayo, noma ngebhayibheli, kuzofanela ukuthi kucatshangwe ukuthi alilungile, kungaba ngasikhathi kokubhala noma ekudluliseleni. (Imibhalo yakhe ayigcinwanga ngokunakekelwa okufanayo njengoba iBible yayibhalwe ngababhali abangamaMasorete).

Isikhathi sokulandelana kompristi omkhulu kuphela sinengqondo embonweni yethu, bheka ukuthi uDariyu ubizwa nangokuthi u-Aritahishashita.

Ukunikezwa kwezinye zalezi zigameko ku-Xerxes nguJosephus kuyamangaza njengoba konke kuvela ngokulandelana kwezikhathi ngale ndlela. Noma besebenzisa ukubalwa kwezikhathi uXerxes akazange abuse iminyaka engama-25. Ngakho-ke, ukusetshenziswa kwama-Xerxes lapha kuzofanela ukuthi kuthathwe njengokungalungile kuJosephus.

Isixazululo: Yebo

I-Aritahishashita

Isahluko 6[xi] unikeza ukulandelana njengoKoresi indodana kaXerxes - obizwa ngokuthi u-Aritahishashita.

NgokukaJosephus, kwakungu-Aritahishashita owashada no-Esiteri, waba nedili ngonyaka wesithathu wokubusa kwakhe. Ngokwesigaba 6, le Artaxerxes nayo ibuse ezifundazweni eziyi-127. Le micimbi ayisebenzi ndawo nokwezikhathi zezwe ezivame ukubabela ama-Xerxes.

Kodwa-ke, uma sithatha ikhambi elihlongozwayo okungukuthi uDarius wabizwa futhi ngokuthi u-Aritahishashita no-Ahashiveroshi eBhayibhelini bese siphakamisa ukuthi uJosephus wadidanisa u-Aritahishashita indodana kaXerxes neNcwadi kaEzra, isahluko 7 kuqhubeke wabiza uDarius I, u-Aritahishashita. mayelana no-Esteri kungabuye kubuye kuhlaziywe nekhambi elihlongozwayo.

Isahluko 7[xii] ukhuluma ukuthi u-Eliyashibhi walawulwa uJuda indodana yakhe noJudas ngendodana yakhe uJohn, owadala ukungcoliswa kweThempeli nguBagoses umqondisi womunye u-Artaxerxes (u-Artaxerxes II onguye u-Artaxerxes I noma u-Artaxerxes III?). UmPristi Ophakeme uJohn (Johanan) walandelwa indodana yakhe uJaddua.

Lokhu kuqonda kwerekhodi likaJosephus kufaka kahle ikhambi esiliphakamisile, futhi kuleso sixazululo kwenza umqondo wobupristi Ophakeme obulandelwe ngaphandle kwesidingo sokuphindaphinda noma ukungeza Abaphristi Abaphezulu abangaziwa ukuthi yikuphi ukulandelana kwezwe okudingeka kwenziwe. Iningi lokulandisa kukaJosephus ngale Artaxerxes kungenzeka kube yi-Artaxerxes III ekuxazululeni kwethu.

Isixazululo: Yebo

UDariyu (wesibili)

Isahluko 8[xiii] kukhulunywa ngomunye uDariyu weNkosi. Lokhu kungaphezulu kweSanballat (elinye igama eliyisihluthulelo) oshone ngesikhathi kungavinjezelwa iGaza, ngu-Alexander the Great.[xiv]

UPhilip, inkosi yaseMakedoniya, kanye no-Alexander (the Great) nabo kukhulunywa ngabo ngesikhathi seJaddua futhi banikezwa njengabasesikhathini.

Lo Darius uzolingana noDarius III weChronology yezwe kanye noDariyusi wokugcina wesisombululo sethu.

Kodwa-ke, ngisho nangomugqa wesikhathi wekhambi eliphakanyisiwe, kunesikhala seminyaka ecishe ibe ngu-80 phakathi kweSanballat kaNehemiya neSanballat kaJosephus no-Alexander the Great. Kalula nje, isiphetho kufanele kube ukuthi ngeke babe umuntu oyedwa. Kungenzeka ukuthi i-Sanballat yesibili ingumzukulu weSanballat yokuqala, njengoba amagama amadodana weSanbalati yesikhathi sikaNehemiya ayaziwa. Sicela ubheke ingxenye yethu yokugcina ukuze ubuke izindimbane zeSanballat.

Enye enye isiphetho esiyisixazululo sempumelelo.

Isixazululo: Yebo

11. Ukuqanjwa kwe-Apocrypha kwamakhosi asePheresiya ku 1 & 2 Ama-Esdras, Isixazululo

U-Esdras 3: 1-3 ufundeka ngokuthi “Inkosi uDariyu yenza idili elikhulu kubo bonke ababalwayo, nakubo bonke abazalelwe endlini yakhe, nakuzo zonke izikhulu zakwaMediya, nabasePheresiya, nakuzo zonke izikhulu, nezikhulu, nababusi ababephansi kwakhe, bethabathela eIndiya, besa e-Etiyopiya, ezifundazweni eziyikhulu namashumi amabili nesikhombisa ”.

Lokhu kucishe kufane namavesi okuqala ka-Esteri 1: 1-3 athi: "Kwathi ngezinsuku zika-Ahashiveroshi, lowo Ahashiveroshi owayebusa njengenkosi esuka eNdiya eya e-Etiyopiya, phezu kwezifunda eziyikhulu namashumi amabili nesikhombisa…. Ngonyaka wesithathu wokubusa kwakhe waba nedili kuzo zonke izikhulu zakhe nezinceku zakhe, amabutho asePheresiya nabezindaba, nezikhulu kanye nezikhulu zezifunda zombuso phambi kwakhe.

Ngakho-ke, kungasusa noma yikuphi ukungqubuzana okukhona phakathi kwalawa ma-akhawunti amabili uma kungukuthi ngesisombululo esiveziwe sikhomba u-Ahashiveroshi noDariyu njengeNkosi efanayo.

Isixazululo: Yebo

U-Esteri 13: 1 (Apocrypha) iyafunda “Manje yilesi siyikhophi yencwadi: Inkosi enkulu u-Aritahishashita ubhala lezi zinto kubabusi bezifundazwe eziyikhulu namashumi amabili nesikhombisa kusukela eNdiya kuya e-Ethiopia nakwababusi ababekwe phansi kwabo.”. Kukhona amagama afanayo ku-Esteri 16: 1.

Lezi ndima ku-Apocryphal Esteri zinikeza u-Aritahishashita njengeNkosi esikhundleni sika-Ahashiveroshi njengeNkosi ka-Esteri. Futhi, i-Apocryphal Esdras ikhomba iKing Darius isebenza ngendlela efanayo neNkosi u-Ahashiveroshi ku-Esteri.

Ngakho-ke, kungasusa noma yikuphi ukungqubuzana phakathi kwalawa ma-akhawunti amabili uma ngelesisombululo esiveziwe sikhomba u-Ahashiveroshi noDariyu kanye no-Aritahishashita njengeNkosi efanayo.

Isixazululo: Yebo

12. Ubufakazi be-Septuagint (LXX), Isixazululo

Ehlelweni le-Septuagint leNcwadi ka-Esteri, sithola ukuthi iKosi ibizwa ngokuthi u-Aritahishashita kuno-Ahashiveroshi.

Ngokwesibonelo, U-Esteri 1: 1 ufundeka ngokuthi “Ngonyaka wesibili wokubusa kuka-Aritahishashita inkosi enkulu, ngosuku lokuqala lukaNisan, uMardochaeus indodana kaJariyasi,…. "Futhi kwenzeka emva kwalezi zinto ngezinsuku zika-Aritahishashita, (lo Artaxerxes wabusa izifundazwe eziyikhulu namashumi amabili nesikhombisa waseNdiya)".

Encwadini yeSeptuagint kaEzra, sithola i- “Assuerus” esikhundleni sika-Ahashiveroshi wombhalo wamaMasorete, kanye ne- “Arthasastha” esikhundleni se-Artaxerxes yombhalo weMasorete. Lokhu kwehluka kwamagama amancane kungenxa nje yombhalo wamaMasorete aqukethe ukuhunyushwa kwesiHeberu ngokungafani neSeptuagint ene-Greek Transliteration. Sicela ubheke isigaba H engxenyeni 5 yalolu chungechunge.

Ukulandisa kweSeptuagint kuEzra 4: 6-7 kuyakhulunywa Kepha ekubuseni kuka-Asuwerosi, ekuqaleni kokubusa kwakhe, babhala incwadi, beya kubemi bakwaYuda naseYerusalem. Futhi ezinsukwini zika-Arthasastha, uTabeel wabhala ngokuthula kuMithradates nakwabanye abasebenza nabo: umthelisi wentela wabhalela u-Arthasastha inkosi yamaPheresiya ebhala ngolimi lwaseSyria ”.

Ngokwesisombululo esihlongozwayo i-Ahashiveroshi lapha kuzoba yiCambyses (II) kanti ama-Artaxerxes lapha kuzoba yiBardiya / Smerdis / Magi ngokuqonda kweMasoretic Ezra 4: 6-7.

Isixazululo: Yebo

I-Septuagint kaEzra 7: 1 iqukethe i-Arthasastha esikhundleni se-Artaxerxes yombhalo weMasorete futhi ifundeka ngokuthi “Kwathi emva kwalezi zinto, lapho kubusa u-Arthasastha, inkosi yamaPheresiya, kwenyuka u-Esdras indodana kaSarayias, ”

Lokhu kume nje umehluko wokuhunyushwa kwegama lesiHeberu nokuhunyushwa kwamaGreek kwegama elifanayo futhi ngokusho kwekhambi elihlongozwayo uDarius (I) womlando wezwe ofanelana nencazelo yawo. Qaphela ukuthi u-Esdras ulingana no-Ezra.

Kunjalo nangoNehemiya 2: 1 othi:Kwathi ngenyanga kaNisan ngonyaka wamashumi amabili wenkosi u-Arthasastha, iwayini laliphambi kwami:

Isixazululo: Yebo

Inguqulo ye-Septuagint kaEzra isebenzisa uDarius ezindaweni ezifanayo nombhalo wamaMasorete.

Isibonelo, incwadi kaEzra 4:24 iyafundeka “Wawuyeka-ke umsebenzi wendlu kaNkulunkulu eJerusalema, wema ngaze kwaba ngumnyaka wesibili wokubusa kukaDariyu inkosi yamaPheresiya.” (I-Septuagint version).

Isiphetho:

Ezincwadini zeSeptuagint zikaEzra nezikaNehemiya, i-Arthasastha iyafana ne-Artaxerxes (yize i-Artaxerxes ngokwezikhathi ezihlukile ilandisa ngesikhathi esifanayo iArtaxerxes iyinkosi ehlukile futhi i-Assuerus ihlala ilingana no-Ahashiver. kaEzra noNehemiya, ngokulandelana bane-Artaxerxes esikhundleni sika-Ahashiveroshi. UDariyu utholakala ngokulandelana emibhalweni emibili yeSeptuagint neMasorete.

Isixazululo: Yebo

13. Isabelo se-Cuneiform kanye nezindaba zokuShicilela Ezizimele ukuxazululwa, Isixazululo?

Hhayi okwamanje.

Kuzoqhutshwa engxenyeni 8….

[i] Izingcezu Eziphelele Ze-Ctesias elihunyushwe nguNichols, ikhasi 92, para (15) https://www.academia.edu/20652164/THE_COMPLETE_FRAGMENTS_OF_CTESIAS_OF_CNIDUS_TRANSLATION_AND_COMMENTARY_WITH_AN_INTRODUCTION

[Ii] UJosephus - Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XI, Isahluko 8, isigaba 7, http://www.ultimatebiblereferencelibrary.com/Complete_Works_of_Josephus.pdf

[Iii] Ikhasi 704 pdf uhlobo lwe Imisebenzi ephelele kaJosephus. http://www.ultimatebiblereferencelibrary.com/Complete_Works_of_Josephus.pdf

[Iv] Izinto zakudala zamaJuda, Incwadi XI

[V] Ikhasi 705 pdf uhlobo lwe Imisebenzi ephelele kaJosephus http://www.ultimatebiblereferencelibrary.com/Complete_Works_of_Josephus.pdf

[vi] Izinto zakudala zamaJuda, Incwadi XI

[vii] Ikhasi 705 pdf uhlobo lwe Imisebenzi ephelele kaJosephus http://www.ultimatebiblereferencelibrary.com/Complete_Works_of_Josephus.pdf

[viii] Ukuze uthole olunye ulwazi bheka http://tertullian.org/rpearse/manuscripts/josephus_antiquities.htm

[ix] Izinto zakudala zamaJuda, Incwadi XI

[X] Izinto zakudala zamaJuda, Incwadi XI

[xi] Izinto zakudala zamaJuda, Incwadi XI

[xii] Izinto zakudala zamaJuda, Incwadi XI

[xiii] Izinto zakudala zamaJuda, Incwadi XI

[xiv] http://www.ultimatebiblereferencelibrary.com/Complete_Works_of_Josephus.pdf UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XI, Isahluko 8 v 4

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