Ukuhlobanisa Isiprofetho SikaMesiya SikaDaniyeli 9: 24-27 Nomlando Wezwe

Ukuqedela Isixazululo

Isifinyezo sokutholakele kuze kube manje

Kulolu phenyo lwemashi kuze kube manje, sithole emibhalweni elandelayo:

  • Lesi sixazululo sabeka ukuphela kwama-69 ayisikhombisa ngonyaka ka 29 AD ngenkathi uJesu eqala inkonzo yakhe.
  • Lesi sixazululo saqeda imbangela yomhlatshelo neminikelo yesipho, lapho ingxenye yabayisikhombisa ngonyaka ka-33 AD noMesiya uJesu ayenqunywa, wabulawa, ngenxa yabo bonke abantu.
  • Lesi sixazululo sabeka ukuphela kwezikhombisa zokugcina ngonyaka ka-36 AD ngokuguqulwa kukaKorneliyu abeZizwe.
  • Lesi sixazululo sibeke u-1st Unyaka kaKoresi Omkhulu ngonyaka ka-455 BC njengokuqala kweminyaka eyisikhombisa eyisikhombisa yeminyaka engama-49.
  • Lesi sixazululo sabeka unyaka wama-32 kaDarius aka Ahasuerus, aka-Artaxerxes ngonyaka ka-407 BC eqeda iminyaka eyisikhombisa yeminyaka engama-49 ngokubuya kukaNehemiya eBhabhiloni nodonga lwaseJerusalema lubuyiselwe. (UNehemiya 13: 6)
  • Ngakho-ke, lesixazululo sinikeza isizathu esinengqondo sokuba uDaniel noJehova bahlukanise lesi siprofetho saba ngamasikhombisa ayisikhombisa namashumi ayisithupha nambili. (bheka inkinga / isixazululo 7)
  • Lesi sixazululo sinikeza iminyaka efanelekile kaMoridekayi, u-Esteri, u-Ezra, noNehemiya ngokungafani nencazelo yendabuko yezenkolo neyenkolo, enganaki noma ichaze ubudala obungenangqondo “ngomunye uMoridekayi, omunye u-Ezra, omunye uNehemiya, noma ukulandisa kweBhayibheli akulungile ”. (Bheka izinkinga / izixazululo 1,2,3)
  • Lesi sixazululo sinikeza nencazelo efanelekile yokulandelana kwamakhosi asePheresiya emibhalweni. (Bheka izinkinga / izixazululo 5,7)
  • Lesi sixazululo sisisiza futhi ukuba siqonde ukulandelana komPristi Ophakeme okunengqondo kwenkathi yoMbuso WasePheresiya evumelana nemibhalo. (bheka inkinga / isixazululo 6)
  • Lesi sixazululo sinikeza incazelo efanelekile yohlu lwabaphristi ababili. (bheka inkinga / isixazululo 8).
  • Lesi sixazululo sidinga ukuqonda ukuthi uDarius I wabizwa noma waziwa ngokuthi u-Aritahishashita noma wabizwa ngokuthi u-Aritahishashita kuyeth unyaka wokubusa kuqhubeke ekulandiseni kusukela ku-Ezra 7 kuqhubeke nakuNehemiya. (bheka inkinga / isixazululo 9)
  • Lesi sixazululo sibuye sidinga ukuqonda ukuthi u-Ahashiveroshi wencwadi ka-Esteri ubhekisele nakuDariyu I. (bheka izinkinga / izixazululo 1,9)
  • Lesi sixazululo sisisiza nokuba senze umqondo cishe wakho konke okwabhalwa nguJosephus, noma kungezona zonke iziqeshana, esikhundleni sezicucwana ezimbalwa. (bheka inkinga / isixazululo 10)
  • Lesi sixazululo sinikeza nesixazululo esizwakalayo sokuqanjwa kwamakhosi asePheresiya ezincwadini ze-Apocrypha. (bheka inkinga / isixazululo 11)
  • Lesi sixazululo sinikeza nesixazululo esizwakalayo sokuqanjwa kwamaKhosi amaPheresiya eSeptuagint. (bheka inkinga / isixazululo 12)

Kodwa-ke, lesi sixazululo sisishiya ne-conundrum encane ukuthola, ukuthi ukulandelana okusele kwamaKhosi asePheresiya.

Isikhathi esisele, kusukela ngonyaka owalandela ukufa kukaDarius I ku-36 yakheth Unyaka, okuthi kulesixazululo kungu-402 BC, kuya ku-330 BC lapho u-Alexander enqoba inkosi uDarius okokugcina futhi waba yinkosi yePheresiya uqobo, kudingeka silingane iminyaka eyi-156 sibe yiminyaka engama-73 (namakhosi ayi-6 uma kungenzeka) ngaphandle kokuphikisana neningi Imininingwane engokomlando uma kungenzeka. Ikhiyubhu enkulu kaRubik yepuzzle!

Iziqeshana zokugcina zePuzzle

Kwenziwa kanjani lokhu?

Ocwaningweni nasekucwaningweni kwalo mbhali nasekubhalweni kwezingxenye ezedlule zalolu chungechunge lwemiphumela, sekucacile ukuthi indawo yokuqala kwakufanele ibe ngu-455 BC. Kodwa-ke futhi sekucacile ukuthi lokhu bekufanele kube yi-1st Unyaka kaKoresi esikhundleni se-20th Unyaka ka-Aritahishashita I. Ngenxa yalokho, wayezama kaningi ukuzama ukubheka isimo esingahlangabezana nezidingo zephuzu lokugcina engxenyeni yesiFinyezo sokuFunyanwa ngenhla. Noma kunjalo, akukho simo esaba nomqondo wedatha ngaleso sikhathi futhi akunakuba nesizathu.

Ukuqhathaniswa kwemininingwane evela ku-Eusebius[i] kanye ne-Africanus[Ii] noPtolemy[Iii] nezinye izazi-mlando zasendulo ngobukhosi bamakhosi asePheresiya nalawo makhosi ashiwo nguJosephus, uPoet Poet Ferdowsi[Iv], futhi kwenziwa uHerodotus. Yaqala ukuveza futhi yabukisa ngamaphethini yonke enezincazelo, hhayi nje kuphela kulokho okwatholakala lapho kuphenywa irekhodi leBhayibheli, kodwa futhi nangemibhalo eminingi ehlukahlukene eyayiphume lapho kuphenywa abanye osomlando.

Kwakuhlaba umxhwele ukuthi iPondlo yasePheresiya uFerdowsi kuphela wayenamakhosi aze afike kuDarius II futhi ashiye uXerxes.

UJosephus naye waba namakhosi nje waze wafika kuDarius II kodwa wafaka uXerxes. UHerodotus wayenamakhosi kuphela kuze kufike ku-Aritahishashita I. (Kukholakala ukuthi uHerodotus wafa ngenkathi kubusa u-Aritahishashita I noma ekuqaleni kokubusa kukaDarius II.)

Uma uDarius I (the Great) ebaziwa futhi ngokushintshiwe ngegama lakhe ngokuthi u-Aritahishashita, kungenzeka ukuthi amanye amaKhosi asePheresiya ayefana, okungenzeka kudala ukudideka phakathi kwezazi-mlando zakamuva emlandweni wasendulo naku-20th futhi 21st Ikhulu.

Ukuqhathaniswa Kokubusa Kwezikhathi Ezivela Kubabhali Bembali Basendulo

UHerodotus c. 430 BC Ctesias c. 398 BC I-Diodorus 30 BC UJosephus 75 AD UPtolemy 150 AD Clement wase-Alexandria c. Ngo-217 AD Manetho / Sextus Julius Africanus c.220 AD UManetho / Eusebius c. Ngo-330 AD USulpicus Severus c.400 AD Imbongi yasePheresiya uFirdusi (931-1020 AD)
UKoresi II (Omkhulu) 29 30 Yebo 9

(IBhabhulona)

30 31 Yebo
I-Cambyses II 7.5 18 6 8 19 6 3 9 Yebo
Magi 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
UDariyu I (Omkhulu) 36 - 9+ 36 46 36 36 36 Yebo
Xerxes I Yebo - 20 28 + 21 26 21 21 21
I-Artabanos 0.7
I-Aritahishashita (I) Yebo 42 40 7+ 41 41 41 40 41 Yebo
I-Xerxes II 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
I-Sogdianos 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
UDariyu II 35 19 Yebo 19 8 19 19 19 Yebo
U-Aritahishashita II 43 46 42 62
I-Artaxerxes III 23 21 2 6 23
Ama-Asses (i-Artaxerxes IV) 2 3 4
UDarius III 4 4 6
Izingqikithi 73 126 145 50 + 209 212 134 137 244

Njengoba ubona kunomehluko omkhulu phakathi kwezixazululo ezinikezwe izazi-mlando ezahlukahlukene esikhathini esiyiminyaka engamakhulu. Iziphathimandla zezwe nezenkolo namuhla zivamisile ukulandelana kwezikhathi kukaPtolemy.

Ngakho-ke, ukuzama ukubuyisana ngalolu daba olukhulu, kwathathwa isinqumo sokubuyela emuva ekuweni koMbuso WasePheresiya kuya ku-Alexander the Great waseMacedonia ngo-330BC, kuDarius I ohulumeni wakhe waphela ngo-403 BC noKoresi uqala ngo-455 BC.

Ngakho-ke sithole:

  • UDarius III eneminyaka emi-4, (ubude bokubusa ngokusho kukaPtolemy noManetho ngokukaJulius Africanus), inkosi yokugcina yasePheresiya, eyabusa ngesikhathi sokuqalwa kuka-Alexander the Great eMbusweni wasePheresiya.
  • Ama-Asses (Artaxerxes IV) aneminyaka emi-2. (ubude bokubusa ngokusho kukaPtolemy).

Olandelayo:

  • U-Artaxerxes III wathathwa ukuba wabusa iminyaka emi-2. (ubude bokubusa ngokusho kukaManetho noJulius Africanus, kanye neminye iminyaka eyi-19 njengeNkosi yaseGibhithe noma njengombusi-munye)
  • UDarius II ngokubusa kweminyaka eyi-19 njengoba njalo wanikezwa ngu-Africanus, Eusebius, noPtolemy.

Lokhu kufinyelele eminyakeni engama-21 uPtolemy ayinike u-Artaxerxes III. Lokhu kunikeze inkomba eqinile yokuthi mhlawumbe uPtolemy wayenobude obungalungile bokubusa kuka-Artaxerxes III. (Isibalo sikaPtolemy seminyaka engu-21 ka-Artaxerxes besihlala sivela ngobunono nangokucatshana silingana nobude bokubusa kukaXerxes. Kuyaqabukela impela kuMakhosi ezwe elifanayo futhi asondele ngesikhathi komunye nomunye. ukungezwani kwezibalo kwalokhu okwenzeka ngokwemvelo kungathandeki kakhulu).

Ukuchazwa okungenzeka kakhulu ukuthi uPtolemy wayecabangele ubude be-Rule mhlawumbe esebenzisa lelo leXerxes. Kodwa-ke, ezinye izinketho zingaba ukuthi kube khona ukubusa ngokubusa okubuswa yiminyaka eyi-2 ngu-Artaxerxes III ngemuva kokushona kukaDarius II noma ukuthi uDarius (II) wayaziwa futhi ngokuthi noma washintsha igama lakhe laba ngu-Artaxerxes (III), mhlawumbe ngendlela efanayo neBhayibheli eyakhombisa ngayo uDarius (I) yaziwa nangokuthi u-Aritahishashita (I).

Olandelayo:

  • I-Artaxerxes yeSecurity yangezwa ngobude bokubusa okweminyaka engu-41 kushiya i-Artaxerxes II yezwe (ngobude bokubusa kuka-Artaxerxes I ngokusho kukaPtolemy. I-Artaxerxes II yangaphakathi ishiywe yizazi-mlando eziningi zakudala nobude obuhlukahlukene bokubusa kusukela kokusalayo).

Lokhu bekusho ukuthi u-Aritahishashita I ubusa, waqala ngonyaka we-6 ngemuva kokushona kukaDarius I, igebe leminyaka engu-5 (isisombululo sika-Aritahishashita kaEzra 7 kuya phambili noNehemiya). Akusalanga ndawo yonke yokubusa kuka-Xerxes kweminyaka engama-21.

Isiqephu sokugcina:

  • UXerxes wanezelwa ngokubusa kweminyaka engama-21, iminyaka eyi-16 njengombusi wokubambisana nobaba wakhe uDarius, neminyaka emi-5 njengombusi oyedwa.

Njengoba kushiwo ngasekuqaleni kochungechunge lwethu, ezinye izifundiswa zikholelwa ukuthi kunobufakazi bokuthi uXerxes wabusa nobaba wakhe uDarius isikhathi esiyiminyaka eyi-16. Uma uXerxes wayengumbusi wokubambisana noDariyu futhi ngokufa kukaDariyusi, waba umbusi ke lokhu kunikeza incazelo esebenzayo. Kanjani? UXerxes wayezoba umbusi kuphela kule minyaka engu-5 yokugcina yokubusa kwakhe ngaphambi kokuba athathe isikhundla sendodana yakhe u-Aritahishashita.

UPtolemy unikeza u-Aritahishashita engibusa njengeminyaka engama-41 futhi u-Artaxerxes II ubusa ubude njengeminyaka engama-46. Qaphela umehluko weminyaka emi-5. Kuya ngokuthi ibalwa kanjani u-Aritahishashita kungashiwo ukuthi wabusa iminyaka engama-41 eyedwa noma mhlawumbe iminyaka engama-46 kufaka phakathi iminyaka emihlanu yokubusa kwakhe nobaba uXerxes ngemuva kokushona kukayisemkhulu uDarius I. Lokhu kuzobangela ukudideka okulandelayo kosomlando njengoPtolemy maqondana nokubusa kwe-Artaxerxes ehlukahlukene. Ngemithombo ehlukene enikeza ubude obuhlukile be-Artaxerxes, uPtolemy wayengacabanga ukuthi lokho okwaziwa ngokwezwe njenge-Artaxerxes I ne-Artaxerxes II kwakungamakhosi ahlukile esikhundleni sinye.

Isifinyezo sokungafani kwezixazululo Zezwe:

  1. UXerxes nginokubusa ngokubambisana noDarius I iminyaka engu-16.
  2. Ukubusa kuka-Aritahishashita kweminyaka engama-46 ngokusho kukaPtolemy kuyehliswa njengokuphindwayo kwe-Artaxerxes I.
  3. Ukubusa kuka-Artaxerxes III kufinyezwa kusuka eminyakeni engama-21 kuye kwengama-2 noma kube nokubusa ngokubambisana komehluko osele weminyaka eyi-19.
  4. Ama-Asses noma u-Artaxerxes IV uneminyaka emithathu kaManetho ancishiselwe eminyakeni engu-3 kaPtolemy noma unyaka owodwa wokubusa ngokubambisana nale minyaka engu-2.
  5. Ukulungiswa okuphelele kuyiminyaka eyi-16 + 46 + 19 + 1 = iminyaka engama-82.

Konke lokhu kulungiswa kwenziwe ngesisekelo esihle futhi kuvumela ukuthi isiprofetho sebhayibheli sikaDaniel 9: 24-27 sinembile futhi nokho sivumele wonke amaqiniso omlando owaziwayo futhi athembeke. Ngale ndlela singasekela iqiniso lezwi likaNkulunkulu njengoba kushiwo ku Roma 3: 4, lapho umphostoli uPhawuli athi "Kepha uNkulunkulu makatholakale eyiqiniso, noma wonke umuntu efunyanwa eyisimanga ”.

13. Ukukhishwa Kwendaba Yesecurity - Isixazululo

Okubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi lokhu kuqonda kubuye kwavumela ukuthi umbhalo we-A3P ulunge njengoba umugqa odingekayo wokulandelana ukufanisa okubhaliwe wawungasasebenzi, naphezu kokudilizwa kwe-Artaxerxes II.

Umbhalo we-A3P uyafundwa “Inkosi enkulu u-Aritahishashita [III], inkosi yamakhosi, inkosi yamazwe, inkosi yalomhlaba, ithi: Ngiyindodana yenkosi I-Aritahishashita [II Mnemon]. U-Aritahishashita wayeyindodana yenkosi Darius [II Nothus]. UDariyu wayeyindodana yenkosi I-Aritahishashita [Mina]. U-Aritahishashita wayeyindodana yenkosi uXerxes. UXerxes wayeyindodana yenkosi uDariyu [Omkhulu]. UDariyu wayeyindodana yomuntu ogama lakhe Ama-Hystaspes. UHystaspes wayeyindodana yomuntu ogama lakhe Amagama, lo I-Achaemenid. " [V]

Phawula izinombolo ezibekiwe [ze-III] njengoba lokhu kuyincazelo yomhumushi, njengoba okubhaliwe kanye namarekhodi okuqala kunganiki amaKhosi inombolo yokuwakhomba kumakhosi angaphambilini. Lokhu okungeziwe kwesimanje ukwenza lula ukukhonjwa.

Ngalesi sixazululo umbhalo we-A3P uzoqondwa ukuthi kufundwe “Inkosi enkulu u-Aritahishashita [IV], inkosi yamakhosi, inkosi yamazwe, inkosi yalomhlaba, ithi: Ngiyindodana yenkosi I-Aritahishashita [III]. U-Aritahishashita wayeyindodana yenkosi Darius [II Nothus]. UDariyu wayeyindodana yenkosi I-Aritahishashita [II Mnemon]. U-Aritahishashita wayeyindodana yenkosi uXerxes. UXerxes wayeyindodana yenkosi uDariyu [Omkhulu, futhi uLongimanus]. UDariyu wayeyindodana yomuntu ogama lakhe Ama-Hystaspes. UHystaspes wayeyindodana yomuntu ogama lakhe Amagama, lo I-Achaemenid. "

Ithebula elilandelayo linikeza ukuqhathanisa izincazelo ezimbili zombili ezihambelana nombhalo wokubhaliwe.

Umbhalo - Uhlu lweKing Isabelo sezwe Ukunikezwa kwaleli khambi
I-Aritahishashita I-III (ama-Asses) IV
I-Aritahishashita II (Mnemon) I-III (ama-Asses)
Darius II (uNothus) II (uNothus)
I-Aritahishashita Mina (Longimanus) Mina (Mnemon)
Ama-Xerxes I I
Darius I Mina (no-Artaxerxes, uLongimanus)

14. ISanballat - Inye, Zimbili noma Zintathu?

USanbalati umHoroni ubonakala embhalweni weBhayibheli kuNehemiya 2: 10 ku-20th Unyaka ka-Aritahishashita, osekuhlonziwe kuleli khambi njengoDariyu Omkhulu. UNehemiya 13:28 uveza ukuthi omunye wamadodana kaJoyada indodana ka-Eliyashibi umpristi omkhulu wayengumkhwenyana kaSanibalati umHoroni. Lo mcimbi wenzeka isikhashana emuva kokubuya kukaNehemiya e-Aritahishashita (uDariyu omkhulu) eKing's 32nd unyaka. Mhlawumbe eminyakeni emibili noma emithathu kamuva.

Sithola ukulandelwa kwamadodana akhe uDelaiah noShelemiya ku-Elephantine Papyri noJehohanan njengoMphristi Ophakeme.

Ukukhothoza amaqiniso kusuka ku-Elephantine Temple Papyri sithola okulandelayo.

“KuBagohi [Persian] umbusi wakwaJuda, [kubapristi] abase-Elephantine inqaba. UVidranga, Inkosi [Umbusi waseGibithe lapho kungekho ama-Arsames] uthe, ngonyaka we-14 weNkosi uDariyu [II?]: "Diliza ithempeli le-YHW uNkulunkulu osenqaba yaseNdlovu". Izinsika namasango weSonto eliqoshwe, iminyango emile, imigoqo yethusi yalezo zicabha, uphahla lomsedari, ukufakwa komlilo kwashiswa ngomlilo, negolide nezitsha zesiliva ezebiwe. AmaCambyses [indodana kaKoresi] wabhubhisa amathempeli aseGibhithe kodwa hhayi ithempeli le-YHW. Sifuna imvume kuye UJehohanan umPristi Ophakeme eJerusalema ukuba akhe kabusha ithempeli njengoba lalakhiwe ngaphambili ukunikela ngomnikelo wokudla, impepho, kanye nomlilo oshisayo e-altare le-YHW uNkulunkulu. Satshela noDelaya noShelemiya amadodana kaSanibalati, umbusi waseSamariya. [dated] 20 ka-Marheshvan, unyaka we-17 weNkosi uDarius [II?]. ” [Amabakaki akhombisa idatha echazayo ngezinhloso zomongo].

"Ngaphezu kwalokho, kusukela ngenyanga kaTamuzi, unyaka we-14 weNkosi uDariyu kuze kube namuhla sigqoke indwangu yamasaka nokuzila ukudla; omkethu benziwe baba ngabafelokazi; (thina) asizigcobi ngamafutha futhi singaphuzi wayini. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kusukela ngalolo suku (kuze kube manje) kuze kube yilolu suku, unyaka we-17 weNkosi uDariyu ”. [vi]

Esixazululweni esiphakanyisiwe INkosi uDarius wePapyri kungenzeka abe uDarius II, kungakabiphi ngaphambi kokuwa koMbuso WasePheresiya ku-Alexander the Great.

Isixazululo esivelele kunazo zonke, futhi esifanelana namaqiniso owaziwayo, ukuthi kwakukhona amabili akwaSanballat ngokulandelayo:

  • ISanbalat [I] - kufakazelwa lokho kuNehemiya 2:10. Ukuthatha iminyaka engaba ngu-35 kwabangu-20th Unyaka ka-Aritahishashita (Darius I) njengoba ayengu-Rhuluneli, ngabe wayeneminyaka engaba ngu-50 kuNehemiya 13:28, cishe nabangu-33rd Unyaka kaDarius I / Artaxerxes. Lokhu kuzovumela futhi indodana yamunye kaJoada ukuba abe ngumkhwenyana weSanballat [I] ngalesi sikhathi.
  • Indodana yeSanballat engabizwa ngegama - uma sivumela indodana engabizwa igama ukuthi izalwe nguSanballat [mina] ngineminyaka engama-22, lokho kuzovumela uSanballat [II] ozelwe indodana engabizwa ngegama eneminyaka engama-21/22.
  • ISanballat [II] - kufakazelwa ukuthi lezincwadi zeNdlovu ezinomhlaka 14th unyaka kanye no-17th unyaka kaDariyu.[vii] Ukuthatha uDarius njengoDarius II lokhu kuzovumela uSanballat [II] ukuthi abe seminyakeni yama-60 yokuqala yama-70 ngalesi sikhathi futhi afe esegugile cishe ngezinyanga ezingama-82, izinyanga eziyi-7 phakathi nokuvinjezelwa kweTire kuka-Alexander the Great. Kungavumela nokuthi amadodana akhe aqanjwe ngoDelaiah noShemeliah ukuthi babe badala ngokwanele (abaneminyaka engaphezulu kwengama-40) ukuthi bathathe eminye imisebenzi yezokuphatha evela kubaba babo njengoba izincwadi zisho.

Awekho amaqiniso umbhali uyazi ukuthi lokho kungaphikisana nalesixazululo esiphakanyisiwe.

Amaqiniso atholakala esihlokweni esinesihloko esithi "I-Archaeology neMibhalo ngeNkathi yePheresiya, Gxila kuSanballat ” [viii], kepha izincazelo azinakwa, futhi amaqiniso ambalwa atholakalayo afakwa ohlakeni lwesisombululo eseliphakanyisiwe.

15. Ubufakazi bethebula le-Cuneiform - Ingabe kuyaphikisana nalesi Sisombululo?

Azikho izibhebhe ze-cuneiform eziqinisekisiwe zika-Artaxerxes III, u-Artaxerxes IV, noDarius III. Kumele sincike kososayensi bakudala ngezinsuku zabo zokubusa. Njengoba uzobona kusuka etafuleni langaphambilini, kunobude obuhlukahlukene ngaphandle kobufakazi bokusekela noma obunye babo njengoba bunembile. Ngisho nalawo mathebhulethi e-cuneiform abelwe u-Artaxerxes I, II, no-III enzelwa ukucabanga okukhulu njengoba amakhosi engazange abalwe ngezikhathi zasePheresiya. Ukunikezwa kwamathebulethi kuvame ukwenziwa ngesisekelo sokuthi ukulandelana kwezikhathi zikaPtolemy kunembile. Izazi, ngokungazi lokhu, bese zithi lezi zibhebhe ze-cuneiform ziqinisekisa ukulandelana kwezikhathi kukaPtolemy, kepha lokhu kuyiphutha lokubonisana okuyiphutha.

Isikimu samanani weKosi afana ne-I, II, III, IV, njll., Siyengeza lwanamuhla ukwenza ukuhlonza kube lula.

Ngesikhathi sokubhala umbhali akabazi noma buphi ubufakazi bethebhulethi ye-cuneiform obungaphikisana nalesixazululo. Sicela ubheke iSithasiselo 1[ix] kanye neSithasiselo 2[X] Ukuze uthole olunye ulwazi.

Isiphetho

Lesi sixazululo sihlole futhi saphenya unyaka wokugcina wama-70s. Kubuye kwaqinisekisa unyaka wokuqala kweyisikhombisa sokugcina. Ukusebenzela emuva kulokhu unyaka wokuqala wesikhathi sonke wamiswa kanye nomphela wokuphela kweminyaka eyisikhombisa kanye nokuqala kwamashumi ayisikhombisa nambili. Abaqokile ukuthola ukuthi nguwuphi umyalo / izwi / umyalo owaqala isikhathi samashumi ayisikhombisa nesikhombisa kwahlolwa futhi kwenziwa iziphetho ngokuya ngemibhalo. Ngemuva kokusungula le minyaka emine ebalulekile, obunye ubufakazi babufakwa kuloluhlaka olunikeziwe.

Ekuhambeni kwalolu hambo olude sithole izixazululo zazo zonke izinkinga ezinkulu eziyi-13 ezikhonjiwe, ezidalwe ukutolika okukhona.

Ngesikhathi sokuphothula (ngoMeyi 2020) umbhali wayenganakanga, noma athola noma aziswe nganoma yimuphi amaqiniso okuphikisana nesixazululo esiveziwe. Lokhu akusho ukuthi kungenzeka kungadingi kucolisiswa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, kepha ikhambi eliphelele njengamanje selibonakalisiwe ngaphandle kokungabaza okunengqondo njengamanje.

Ekufikeni kwalesi sixazululo ubuqotho bomlando weBhayibheli buye bathembela kubo futhi lapho kungenzeka khona basebenzise iBhayibheli ukuzihumusha. Siphinde safuna izincazelo ezinengqondo zamaqiniso omlando aziwayo afanelana nokulandisa kweBhayibheli okuvelile, esikhundleni sokuthatha umlando wezwe njengesisekelo futhi sizama ukulinganisa umlando weBhayibheli kuwo.

Ngokukwenza lokho, izizathu zokuhlukanisa isiphrofetho sikaMesiya saba yizi-7 eziyisikhombisa namashumi ayisikhombisa nesikhombisa nesigamu sesikhombisa nesinye isigamu sesikhombisa konke sekubonakele. Lesi siprofetho sibhekwe nangomongo waso webhayibheli kunokuhlukaniswa. Lokhu kunikeza izizathu zokuthi kungani uDaniel anikezwa lesi siprofetho ngesikhathi ayekhona, ku-62st unyaka kaDariyu umMede, okungukuthi:

  • Ukuqinisekisa ukuphela kwezincazelo
  • Ukubheka phambili kuMesiya
  • Ukuqinisa ukholo lukaDaniel ngoba wayezobona ukuqala kwale nkathi entsha yesiprofetho

UDaniel wayejwayele futhi iminyaka engama-70 yokusebenzela iBabele, kanye neminyaka engama-49 yokuchitheka kweJerusalema neThempeli nokukhululwa konyaka weJubili. Ngakho-ke, iminyaka engama-49 yokwakha kabusha iJerusalema neThempeli lalizoqondwa nguDaniel, njengoba nesikhathi esiprofetho sonke sesikhathi esikhudlwana samashumi ayisikhombisa nesikhombisa kuze kube sekupheleni kwenkathi yokuthi amaJuda athole ithuba lokuqeda iseqo sawo.

Isikhathi sokubuya kukaEzra kanye nokubuyiselwa kwemisebenzi nemihlatshelo yamaLevi ngemuva kokuphothulwa kweThempeli manje manje kunengqondo ngokuphelele, kanye nezinye izinto eziningi.

Abafundi bangahle babuze ukuthi le khambi lidala yini iziphetho ezithathwe ochungechungeni “Uhambo Lokutholwa Ngesikhathi”[xi], eyayiphathelene nezehlakalo kanye neziprofetho eziphathelene nokudingiselwa eBhabhiloni. Impendulo ukuthi iyashintsha none iziphetho ezithathwe. Ukuphela koshintsho oluzodingeka ukuchibiyela iminyaka ephakanyisiwe kukhalenda likaJulian ngokunciphisa iminyaka engama-82, kuqhubeke ngo-539 BC kuya ku-456 BC noma ngo-455 BC, kanye nabo bonke abanye ngenani elifanayo lokuguqulwa.

Ukuqonda lesi siprofetho sikaMesiya kusiza futhi ekuqinisekiseni okutholakele “Uhambo Lokutholwa Ngesikhathi ”. Okungukuthi, ukuthi ukuhumusha incazelo kaDaniel yephupho likaNebukadinesari lezikhathi eziyisikhombisa njengokugcwaliseka okukhulu akunakwenzeka, ikakhulukazi nosuku lokuqala kuka-607 BC noma usuku lokugcina luka-1914 AD.

Ekugcineni futhi okubaluleke kakhulu, inhloso yophenyo iphumelele. Okungukuthi, isisombululo esiveziwe siqinisekisile futhi sanikeza ubufakazi bokuthi uJesu wayenguMesiya othenjisiwe wesiprofetho sikaDaniel esivela kuDaniel 9: 24-27.

Isithasiselo 1 - Ubufakazi be-Cuneiform Butholakala Emakhosini AmaPheresiya

Umthombo wolwazi olulandelayo Ukulandelana kwezikhathi zaseBabiloni 626 BC - AD75 nguRichard A. Parker noWaldo H Dubberstein 1956 (4th Ukuphrinta 1975). Ikhophi eku-inthanethi etholakala ku-: https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/babylon/downloads/babylonian_chronology_pd_1956.pdf

Ikhasi 14-19 leNcwadi, ikhasi 28-33 le-pdf

amanothi:

Umhlangano wokuqomisana uthi: Inyanga (izinombolo zaseRoma) / Usuku / Unyaka.

I-Acc = Unyaka wokuvunywa kwezimali, ie unyaka 0.

? = okungafundeki noma okushodayo noma okungabazekayo.

VI2 = 2nd Inyanga 6, inyanga yokuzibandakanya (inyanga evuzayo ekhalendeni lenyanga)

UKoresi

Kuqala: I-VII / 16 / i-Bhabhoni ye-Acc iyawa (Nabunaid Chronicle)

Okokugcina: V / 23/9 Borsippa (VAS V 42)

AmaCambyses

Okokuqala: I-VI / 12 / i-Acc Bhabhidili (Strassmaier, AmaCambyses, No. 1)

Okokugcina: I / 23/8 Shahrinu (Stassmaier, I-Cambyses, Cha. 409)

UBardiya

Okokuqala: XII / 14 / ?? Umugqa Wokubhala we-Behistun 11 (nguDarius I)

Okokugcina: VII / 10 / ?? Umugqa Wokubhala KaBehistun 13 (nguDarius I)

UDariyu I

Okokuqala: XI / 20 / Acc Sippar (Strassmaier, Darius, Cha.1)

Okokugcina: VII / 17 noma 27/36 Borsippa (V AS IV 180)

Ama-Xerxes

Okokuqala: VIII noma XII / 22 / Acc Borsippa (V AS V 117)

Okokugcina: V / 14? - 18? / 21 BM32234

U-Aritahishashita I

Okokuqala: III / - / 1 PT 4 441 [Cameron]

Okokugcina: XI / 17/41 Tarbaaa (Clay, BE IX 109)

UDariyu II

Okokuqala: I-XI / 4 / i-Bhabhaniya (uClay BE X 1)

Okokugcina: VI2/ 2/16 I-Ur (Figulla, UET IV 93)

Azikho izibhebhe ze-yrs 17-19 zikaDarius II

U-Aritahishashita II

Awekho amathebhulethi wokutholakala kwe-Artaxerxes II

Okokuqala: II / 25/1 i-Uri (i-Figulla, I-UET IV 60)

Okokugcina: VIII / 10/46? IBhabheli (V AS VI 186; unyaka wonke walimala kancane kodwa wafunda njengo “46” ka-Arthur Ungad)

I-Artaxerxes III

Azikho izibhebhe zanamuhla ze-cuneiform

Ama-Asses / Artaxerxes IV

Azikho izibhebhe zanamuhla ze-cuneiform

UDarius III

Azikho izibhebhe zanamuhla ze-cuneiform

Ubufakazi be-cuneiform kuma-5yrs e-Babelonia

Ptolemaic Canon 4 Iminyaka yokubusa eGibhithe

Isithasiselo 2 - I-Egypt Chronology for the Achaemenid [Medo-Persian] Isikhathi

Kwakukhona nokho, ucezu olulodwa lwephazili olwalusele kuze kube ekugcineni. Isizathu sokuba sishiywe ekugcineni ukuthi isihloko sokubuswa kwamaPheresiya eGibhithe asizange sithintwe emibhalweni.

Ngemuva kwesikhathi esiningi esisetshenziswe ekucwaningeni isiphetho ukuthi kukhona futhi amaqiniso ambalwa kakhulu okuqhathaniswa nokubusa kwamaPheresiya ngeGibhithe noma yiPharoah yendawo. Iningi lezinsuku ezanikezwa abaphathi beziphathamandla zasePheresiya njengababusi egameni lamakhosi asePheresiya, zisuselwa kuhlelo lwezikhathi lwamakhosi wePtolemaic lwamakhosi asePheresiya kunasezinkombeni ze-papyri noma ze-cuneiform. Kunjalo nangamakhosi / kaPharoah ka-Dynasties waseGibhithe angu-28th, 29th futhi 30th.

Izindiza ZasePheresiya

  • I-Aryandes: - Ukulawulwa kusukela ngonyaka we-5 weCambyses II kuya ku-1 kaDarius I.
  • I-Aryandes: - Uqokwe kabusha nguDarius I ku-5 yakheth

Wabulawa kuze kube unyaka 27 kaDarius I?

  • Ama-Peresates: - Wabulawa iminyaka eyi-11?

Kusuka onyakeni 28? kaDarius I kuya ku-18? kaXerxes I (= Darius I, iminyaka engama-36 +2)?

  • Ama-Achaemenes: - Wabulawa iminyaka engu-27?

Kusuka ku-19th - 21st kaXerxes? kanye no-1st - 24th unyaka u-Aritahishashita [II]?

  • Ama-Arsames: - Unikezwe iminyaka engama-40?

Kusuka ku-25th I-Artaxerxes [II] kuya ku-3rd U-Artaxerxes IV?

Kuzo zonke lezizinsuku, kuphela lezo kudwetshwe nakanjani. Amarekhodi enziwe ngosuku / Datable ayesabisa ngalesi sikhathi. Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngama-Satrapies asePersia jikelele kanye neGibhithe ikakhulukazi uyabona

http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/achaemenid-satrapies ngaphansi kuka-5, 5.1, 5.1.1, 5.1.2, 5.2, 5.3.

UDynonic Dynasty 27

Ukulandelana kwezwe okusemthethweni kungatholakala lapha: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twenty-seventh_Dynasty_of_Egypt#Timeline_of_the_27th_Dynasty_(Achaemenid_Pharaohs_only).

Amaphuzu alandelayo abalulekile kufanele aqashelwe:

  • Kuphela nguCambyses II noDarius engaziwa ukuthi anamagama esihlalo sobukhosi, ngokuba nguMesutire noStutre ngokulandelana.
  • Ukubusa kweNkosi ngayinye yasePheresiya eGibhithe kususelwa Kokubala Kwezwe KwasePheresiya okwenzeka ngokusekelwe ekulandelweni kwezikhathi kukaPtolemy kulotshwe ku-2nd Ngekhulu le-AD. Ngenxa yesisombululo esiveziwe esiqukethwe kulolu chungechunge, lokhu kuzodala nezinsuku ezihlongoziwe zokubusa kwamakhosi amaPheresiya eGibhithe nazo zingalungile. Njengoba kunikezwe ukuthi kunobufakazi obuncane noma abunakudingeka busetshenziselwe ikakhulukazi ukuvumelaniswa komcimbi lokhu akubangeli zinkinga zekhambi elihlongozwayo. Ngakho-ke, izinsuku zomhlaba zokubusa kwePheresiya eGibhithe kumele zingashayi emhlolweni futhi zidinga nje ukuchibiyelwa ngokuhambisana nesixazululo sesikhathi nobude bokubusa kwamakhosi asePheresiya ePheresiya.
  • Uhlu luqukethe wonke amaKhosi asePheresiya kusuka eCambyses II kuya kuDarius II futhi luhlanganisa namavukelambuso uPetubastis III ngesikhathi seminyaka emithathu yokuqala yokubusa kukaDarius I noP Psamtik IV ngesikhathi sikaXerxes.
  • Kukhona ubufakazi be-hieroglyphic kuDarius (I) ku-4 yakheth unyaka, nemibhalo eminingana enegama lakhe, kepha akubhalwanga.[xii]
  • Kukhona imibhalo ye-hieroglyphic ye-Xerxes yeminyaka yakhe 2-13.[xiii]
  • Kukhona imibhalo ye-hieroglyphic ye-Artaxerxes I yezwe, lesixazululo, i-Artaxerxes II. [xiv]
  • Akukho ukulandisa kwe-hieroglyphic kwe-Darius II noma i-Artaxerxes II, lesixazululo, i-Artaxerxes III.
  • Ubufakazi bamuva be-papyri bukaDarius (I) ngunyaka wakhe 35.[xv]
  • Ngaphandle kwalokhu okushiwo ngaphambili kweNdlovu i-papyri kaDarius (II) okuxoxwe ngakho ngaphansi kweSanballat, abukho obunye ubufakazi bencwadi ye-papyri umbhali okwazile ukuyithola nokuyiqinisekisa.

I-Egyptoniconic Dynasties 28, 29, 30[xvi]

Dynasty Pharoah yinkosi
28th
I-Amyrteos iminyaka 6
29th
AmaNepheriya I iminyaka 6
Psammouthis 1 ngonyaka
I-Achoris iminyaka 13
AmaNepherishi II 4 izinyanga
30th (ku-Eusebius)
I-Nectanebes (I) iminyaka 10
Teos iminyaka 2
I-Nectanebus (II) iminyaka 8

Leli tafula lisuselwa ohlwini lukaManetho njengoba lugcinwe ngu-Eusebius.

Njengoba kunikezwe ukusweleka kwanoma yimiphi imibhalo noma imibhalo ebhalwe phansi nokuthi bekukhona izikhala phakathi kwalezi zidina, nokuthi lokhu kubusa kubusa kuphela iGibhithe Esezansi (iNayile Delta, noma izingxenye zayo), lokhu kuvumela ukubusa kanyekanye nanoma yisiphi iSatraps yasePheresiya ebusa phezulu I-Gibhithe okubandakanya iMemphis neKarnak, njll. Kusho futhi ukuthi azikho izingcindezi ezikhathazayo zezivumelanisi zezisombululo ezibuyekeziwe zokubusa, njll. Uma ngabe ubufakazi obusha bamaqiniso ongeziwe bethulwa kumlobi-ke le ngxenye izohlaziywa kabusha. Ngamaqiniso, umbhali ubhekisa kuma-papyri ngeminyaka yama-regnal kanye negama leNkosi, noma izibhebhe ze-cuneiform noma imibhalo ebhalwe enikeza Inkosi yasePheresiya kanye nonyaka wokubusa kweNkosi, nemininingwane yokuvumelanisa engalinganiswa, noma isungulwe ngokwesimo.

Ukwenza isibonelo, izinhlamvu ze-Elephantine Papyri zinezinsuku zikaDarius unyaka we-5, unyaka we-14 nowe-17, kanye noJehohanan (umPristi Ophakeme wamaJuda) ngemuva kokufa kukaNehemiya. Lokhu bekuzobabeka engcupheni yokubusa kukaDarius II, imininingwane engenhla evumela ukuthi uDarius II abuse i-Elephantine, i-Upper Egypt, (i-Aswan yanamuhla, eduzane nedamu).

[i] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eusebius

[Ii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sextus_Julius_Africanus

[Iii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy

[Iv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdowsi

[V] https://www.livius.org/sources/content/achaemenid-royal-inscriptions/a3pa/ futhi

"Isichazamazwi sasendulo sasePheresiya nemibhalo yemibhalo yama-Achaemenidan ihumushe futhi yahunyushwa ngokubhekisele ngokukhethekile ekuhlolweni kabusha kwabo kwakamuva," nguHerbert Cushing Tolman, ngo-1908. iphe.42-43 yencwadi (hhayi i-pdf) iqukethe Ukuhumusha nokuhumusha. https://archive.org/details/cu31924026893150/page/n10/mode/2up

[vi] Umongo weMibhalo, uBezalel Porten, COS 3.51, 2003 AD

[vii] Imininingwane eyengeziwe nezithombe zemibhalo yesandla yendlovu etholakala lapha https://www.bible.ca/manuscripts/bible-manuscripts-archeology-Elephantine-papyrus-Egypt-Aswan-Syene-Darius-persian-Jewish-colony-temple-burned-Bagohi-Sanballat-passover-wine-fortress-Ezek29-10-495-399BC.htm#four.

Kodwa-ke, umbhali akazemukeli izinsuku ezinikezwe lapho, okuyizincazelo zababhali besayithi le-intanethi, ikakhulukazi uma bebheka bonke ubufakazi bebhayibheli nobunye obwethulwe kulolu chungechunge. Amaqiniso nokho angakhishwa futhi asetshenziselwe ukunikeza isithombe esigcwele salesi sikhathi nokubheka ukuthi ngabe kukhona amaqiniso angqubuzana nekhambi eliphakanyisiwe, okungekho nelinye elenzayo.

[viii] https://www.academia.edu/9821128/Archaeology_and_Texts_in_the_Persian_Period_Focus_on_Sanballat

[ix] Isithasiselo 1 - Ubufakazi be-Cuneiform Butholakala Emakhosini AmaPheresiya

[X] Isithasiselo 2 - I-Egypt Chronology for the Achaemenid [Medo-Persian] Isikhathi

[xi] https://beroeans.net/2019/06/12/a-journey-of-discovery-through-time-an-introduction-part-1/

[xii] Ukuze uthole ireferensi lohlu bheka https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/chronology/darius.html

[xiii] Ukuze uthole ireferensi lohlu bheka https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/chronology/xerxesi.html

[xiv] Ukuze uthole ireferensi lohlu bheka https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/chronology/artaxerxesi.html

[xv] I-Hermopolis Papyri https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/107318/preater_1.pdf?sequence=1

[xvi] Kususelwa kwinguqulo ka-Eusebius yeManetho: http://antikforever.com/Egypte/Divers/Manethon.htm

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