Yikuphi enekhodi enkulu kakhulu yomhlaba, esebenza kahle kakhulu, ye-AI Computer

Phakathi kwakho ne-Blue Blue[i], kungenzeka uzibuza ukuthi ubani onekhodi yekhompyutha ye-AI enhle kakhulu. Impendulo, noma ungasebenzisi amakhompyutha noma ungayithandi, YAKHO!

Manje ungahle uzibuze ukuthi yini i- “was Blue Deep”. I- “Deep Blue” kwakuyikhompiyutha enkulu ye-IBM ehlelelwe ukudlala i-chess eyaba yikhompyutha yokuqala ukushaya umpetha womhlaba we-chess womuntu ngoMeyi 11, 1997, ngemuva kwemidlalo engu-6, yawina 2 - 1 ngemidwebo emithathu.

Manje kungani sithi nina? Ngoba ikhompyutha ibikwazi ukudlala chess kuphela. Manje kungenzeka ukuthi awudlali chess kahle, kepha ungenza izinto eziningi kakhulu, zonke lezo ikhompyutha ezingakwazanga ukuzenza!

Kepha kuningi kakhulu emuva kwempendulo ukwedlula ukuthi ungakwazi ukupheka kanti i-Deep Blue ayikwazi.

Iseli elilula kakhulu esidalweni noma isitshalo esilula kunazo zonke liyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu kunomshini oyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu owake wakhiqizwa isintu.

Iseli elilula kakhulu liqukethe ngaphakathi kulo ulimi oluhlelekile olunobukhulu kakhulu emhlabeni, olusebenza kahle, olungenazinkinga eziningi, Okwangempela (esikhundleni se-Artificial) Uhlelo lwekhompyutha lwe-Intelligence olwakhiwe njalo. Kuqukethe kuwe futhi. Yini leyo?

DNA

I-DNA imfushane nge-deoxyribonucleic acid, into ezenzekelayo futhi etholakala cishe kuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo njengesakhi esiyinhloko sama-chromosomes. Yisiphathi semininingwane yezakhi zofuzo.

Kalula nje, i-DNA iyinkampani ethwala imininingwane eminingi endaweni yonke. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amaprotheni asebenzayo we-biological awekho ngaphandle kweseli eliphilayo. Konke ukuhlolwa okwenziwe kuqinisekisa leli qiniso lesayensi - amakhemikhali awaphili ngokwawo. Ngempela, lapho sifunda okwengeziwe ngendlela ingqamuzana eliphilayo elisebenza ngayo, siyoncipha izaba zokwenqaba uMdali wethu.

Iseli ephilayo inezinkulungwane zezingxenye, ezihlangana ukuqinisekisa ukuthi iphila, akukho neyodwa eyenzeka ngokwemvelo ngaphandle kwamangqamuzana aphilayo.

IBacteria esanda kutholwa evela kumlando wezinsalela (eCambrian Sedimentary Rock) iziphushe yona ngemoto eyi-7 efana nezakhiwo ezinengqikithi yamagiya angama-21 njengezakhiwo eziqhutshwa ngokulandelana, ngaphezu kwalokho i-cilia's[Ii] wonke kwakumelwe ajikele ohlangothini olufanayo ukuze amagciwane aqhubeke.

Ukubuka okwenziwe lula kwamagciwane alula nge-flagellum eyodwa noma i-cilium kungabonakala lapha:

UCilia (lula)

[Iii]

UCilia noFlagellum

Ububanzi bokusanhlamvu okukodwa kwesihlabathi bungabamba izinkulungwane eziyishumi zalezi zimoto ezincane eceleni.

Umklamo Omangalisayo We-DNA

I-DNA iyikhodi yolwazi yokulandelana ukuze ikhiqize noma yini edingeka yilokho kwento ethile.

Ama-amino acid enza ngendlela efanayo emabhulokini eLego angahlelelwa ukwenza imodeli yeLego ngezindlela eziningi, ezahlukahlukene, ngaphandle kwama-protein ama-amino acid. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amamodeli amaningi we-Lego anezingxenye ezihlukile ezenzelwe lowo imodeli hhayi enye imodeli.

I-Chromosome ifana nengxenye ye-autobiography yomtapo wezincwadi.

IGene ifana nesahluko encwadini engeyona enye incwadi, isb ihlukile.

  • Le “khodi” nayo yenziwa ngezinhlamvu ezi-4 eziphumelelayo, hhayi ezingama-26 njengase-Alfabhethi yesiNgisi.
  • Lezi “zinhlamvu” ezine ngu-A, C, G, T, okuyizinhlamvu zokuqala zamakhemikhali enza izixhumanisi Audine, Ci-ytosine, Gi-uanine, ne- Ticulo elaziwa ngokuthi yi-nucleotides.
  • I-T ingaxhumana ne-A kuphela, futhi uG angaxhumana noC. [Iv]

I-DNA Strand

 

1. Reverse Ukufunda

Ezilimini eziningi kunamagama athile angafundwa emuva, futhi anganikeza incazelo ehluke ngokuphelele kwigama elifundwa ngokujwayelekile.

Igama elithi “level” libizwa ngokuthi i-palindrome, ngoba funda ubuyela emuva noma udlulisela phambili lithi “level”.

Kepha i- "Star" efundwa emuva iba "Amagundane", nencazelo ehluke ngokuphelele. Ngokunjalo, u- “Diliva” uba “Uhlanjalaziwe”, izinhlamvu ezifanayo kepha zilandelana, zinikeza incazelo ehluke ngokuphelele.

KuDNA, izinhlamvu ezifanayo ezifundwa emuva zinenhloso noma umsebenzi ohlukile. Endabeni yegciwane elilula, imvamisa ukwenza amaprotheni e- “motor”.

Lokhu kusho ukuthi ukulandelana okufanayo kweDNA kungasetshenziswa ukwenza izingxenye ezihlukile zomzimba. Indlela esebenza kahle yokufaka amakhodi.

Ikhodi ye-DNA ingafundelwa phambili futhi ibuyele emuva ukuze ikhiqize la maprotheni amancane afana nama-motors asemagciwane. (Yebo, ama-motors akuyona insimbi, kepha ama-amino acid ahlanganiswe ne-protein). Ukufundwa kwe-DNA phambili kungaba yindlela yokwakha futhi ukufunda emuva kungaba yindlela yokusebenzisa. Cabanga ukuzama ukubhala idokhumenti eyodwa echaza ukuthi ungayakha kanjani i-iPhone futhi uma ifundwa ngokubuyiselwa emuva, ikunikeze imiyalo yokuthi ungayisebenzisa kanjani i-iPhone!

2. Imininingwane edlulanayo

Kukhona nemiyalo edlulayo yokunikeza imiyalo ehlukene kepha ibe isebenza kahle. Isibonelo ibinzana elithi "Ngithanda ushokoledi kusihlwa lowo". Kuzwakala ibinzana elixakile, isizathu ukuthi lokhu kungaba nezincazelo ezimbili ezahlukene ngezinhlamvu ezinesibindi zibe izinhlamvu ezidlulayo:

  • Ngiyayithanda i-chocosekwephuzile
  • Kamuva ngalobo busuku

3. Ulwazi olusikiwe

Ngenxa yalokhu sithatha ezinye izinhlamvu ezilandelanayo ngokulandelana okufanayo kwe-DNA, ezinjengezinhlamvu ezibhalwe ngokugqamile kwagama “Ngiyathanda chukhokhoer tine kusihlwa ”okunikeza ukuthi“ Ngithanda isigqoko sakhe ”. Lokhu kuzonikeza umsebenzi ohluke ngokuphelele, kepha kusathathwa ekulandelaneni okufanayo kolwazi ukwakha injongo ehlukile. Ngokuphumelelayo enye ingxenye yekhodi ye-DNA izonikeza imiyalo yokuthi yiziphi izingxenye zalokhu kulandelana kwe-DNA okufanele kusetshenziswe ukukhiqiza enye ingxenye ehlukile. Ngale ndlela yonke imiyalo yokwenza zonke "izingxenye zomshini" zokwenza ukuthi iseli lisebenze ihlanganiswe futhi iqukethwe ngokulandelana okufanayo "kwezinhlamvu" ze-DNA ezibhaliwe.

Kepha akugcini lapho. Kukhona futhi:

  1. Ulwazi Olungenisiwe
  2. Ulwazi Olubhaliwe
  3. Imininingwane ye-3-D (umucu omude we-DNA kufanele ugoqwe ngendlela eyiyo)

Njalo ingqamuzana lingakha elinye iseli lesitho sezinto eziphilayo. Onke amaseli kufanele axhumane njalo, athi “Ngidinga okuningi kwalokhu” noma “ayeke ukwenza lokhu”, njll. Imininingwane yolwazi olugcinwe kwi-DNA iyamangaza ngaphezu kokuqonda kwethu.

Umzimba womuntu unamaseli acishe abe yizigidi eziyizigidi ezingama-100 uma ungakhipha iDNA kulokho ngakunye ubungeke ube nesipuni sikashukela esilinganayo.

Imininingwane equkethwe izofana nezincwadi ezihlanganiswe ebusweni bomhlaba ziye enyangeni, hhayi kanye kepha ziboshwe izikhathi ezingama-500, ze-DNA emzimbeni womuntu owodwa.

Ukudideka Ngaphezulu kweDNA

Ama-Amino acid anjengebuhlalu elilodwa entanjeni ende yobuhlalu okuyiProtein. Kunamaprotheni athize angama-100,000 emzimbeni womuntu. “I-motor” ye-bacterium yenziwa ngamaprotheni ahlukahlukene angama-40.

Ama-Amino acid angakheka kulokho okubizwa ngokuthi “ngakwesobunxele” nangokuthi “kwesokunxele”. Kunoma isiphi isixazululo esingahleliwe, kuzoba nenani elilinganayo lama-amino acid angakwesokunxele nangakwesokunxele, ie i-50/50. Impilo isebenzisa ama-amino acid asele kwesobunxele kuphela, kepha uhlala uthola u-50/50. Ukuvivinya okudumazayo kokwenza ama-amino-acid ngeminyaka yama-1950 kwafaka i-oksijini, ebihlala ikhona emhlabeni ngokusho kwerekhodi lokuma komhlaba, futhi yaphetha ngo-50/50 ama-amino acid asele kwesobunxele kanye namakhemikhali angavimba amaprotheni akha.

Kukhona i-20 ezahlukene ama-amino acid asetshenziselwa ukwenza amaprotheni. Imvamisa, ama-molecule angama-3,000 e-amino acid (enziwe kulawo ma-20 ahlukile, wonke ama-amino acid asele kwesobunxele) axhumene ndawonye ukwenza iprotheni eyodwa yezinto eziphilayo, kepha amanye angama-molecule angama-300 amino acid kuphela kanti amanye anamamolekyuli angama-50,000 XNUMX amino acid. Lonke uhlobo olulodwa lwe-amino acid kufanele lube sendaweni efanele ngaphandle kwalokho alikho iprotheni elisebenzayo.

Inkinga yezempilo eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Sickle cell anemia ibangelwa i-amino acid eyodwa ekubeni endaweni engeyona ye-hemoglobin (iprotheni) ebangela ukuthi ingabi sesimweni esifanele sokuthwala i-oksijini kahle.

Uma sivumela ithuba lokungaboni ukuthi lizame ukwenza iprotheni isebenze ngama-amino acid ama-5 kuphela amade (amancane kakhulu kunamaprotheni ajwayelekile, kufanele uthole i-amino acid efanele ngokulandelana okuyikho. Yikuphi ukungahambi kahle kokukuthola kahle okokuqala?

Ithuba eli-1 kuzame eziyi-3.2. Ithuba elincanyana lelo lokuthi empeleni, akunakwenzeka.

Ungazama lokhu ngokwakho. Faka amabhola anemibala ehlukene angama-20 ebhokisini uwaxube. Beka iziqukathi ezi-5 ezinombala omakwe kuzo zilandelana, faka umuntu obumpumputhe, uzenze zikhethe amabhola ama-5, 1 entweni ngayinye. Ukube behluleka ukukhipha i-blindfold kuze kube yilapho amabhola nemibala kulungile, bebezovalwa amehlo impilo yabo yonke. Susa ukufiphala futhi kungenziwa ngemizuzwana. Kepha lokho kususa ukungaboni, ithuba lokungahleliwe futhi kwethula ubuhlakani ku-equation.

Ngokusobala, kumele sibe nomenzi ohlakaniphile njengoba ithuba elingaboni lingakwazi ukwakha amabhlogo okwakha adingekayo okuphila, akunakwenzeka ngokwezibalo.

Njengoba umphostoli uPhawuli wabhala ku Roma 1: 19-20 “Okungase kwaziwe ngoNkulunkulu kubonakala phakathi kwabo [ababi nabangalungile]. Ngoba izimfanelo zakhe ezingabonakali zibonakala kahle kusukela ekudalweni komhlaba kuye phambili, yebo amandla akhe angaphakade nobuNkulunkulu bakhe, ukuze bangabi nakusoleka ”.

UNkulunkulu usibonisile iminwe yakhe. Ukudalwa kukhona ngenjongo. Akufanele sicindezele amaqiniso odaba ukuze sizame futhi singaboni okusobala.

 

Amazwi okubonga

Ngabaningi Sibonga kuDeborah Pimo ngokulungiselela kwakhe iningi lale ndatshana.

[i] IBM Deep Blue, ikhompyutha yokuqala ukushaya ingqwele ebusayo i-World Chess. https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/deepblue/

[Ii] I-cilium noma i-cilia (ubuningi) zingama-protuberances amancane anjengezinwele ngaphandle kwamaseli we-eukaryotic. Ngokuyinhloko banesibopho sokuqanjwa kwamangqamuzana uqobo lwalo noma uketshezi olungaphezulu kweseli.  https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Flagellum-beating.png

[Iii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flagellum_base_diagram-en.svg

[Iv] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:229_Nucleotides-01.jpg

Bhekafuthi

https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/content/dam/sigma-aldrich/articles/biology/marketing-assets/sanger-sequencing_dna-structure.png

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