Arranging Summaries of Key Bible Chapters in Chronological Order[i]
Theme Scripture: Luke 1:1-3
In our introductory article we laid the groundwork rules and mapped out the destination of our “Journey of Discovery Through Time”.
Establishing Signposts and Landmarks
In every journey there are signposts, landmarks and way pointers. To succeed in reaching our intended destination it is imperative that we follow them in the correct order, otherwise we could end up lost or at the wrong place. Therefore, before starting out on our “Journey of Discovery through Time”, we will need to identify the signposts and landmarks, and their correct order. We are dealing with several Bible books and in addition, as touched on in our first article, the Book of Jeremiah in particular is grouped by subject, rather than written predominantly in chronological[ii] order. We therefore need to extract the signposts (in the form of summaries of key Bible chapters (our source material)) and ensure they are correctly sorted into chronological (or relative time) order. If we do not do this, then it would be very easy to misread the signposts and go in the wrong direction. In particular, it would be easy to go in circles and confuse a signpost with one we already followed and make the assumption it is the same, when it is different because of the surroundings it is in (the context).
One benefit of putting things in chronological or relative time order is that we do not need to worry about assigning modern dates. We only need to record the relationship of one event date to another event date. All those dates or events relating to one King or a line of Kings, put in relative order, can be described as a timeline. We also need to extract the links between different timelines. For example, such as between the Kings of Judah and the Kings of Babylon, and between the Kings of Babylon and the Kings of Medo-Persia. These are described as synchronisms[iii]. An example of a synchronism is Jeremiah 25:1 which links the 4th year of Jehoiakim, a King of Judah with the 1st Year of Nebuchadnezzar, a King of Babylon. This means the 4th year of Jehoiakim coincides with or is simultaneous with the 1st year of Nebuchadnezzar. This enables different and discontinuous timelines to be arranged in the correct relative position time wise.
Many Bible passages record the year and perhaps even month and day of the prophecy or the event, such as the year of the reign of the King. It is therefore possible to build up a considerable picture of the sequence of events solely on this basis. This picture is then able to assist the writer (and any readers) in getting all the important scriptures[iv] in their proper context. This picture of events is also able to act as a reference source (like a map) using a summary of the relevant key Bible Chapters in time order as compiled. The summary that follows was created by using the reference to the dating of events to a month and year of a King’s reign found in many chapters and examining the context and contents of other chapters. The result of this compilation follows in abbreviated form.
The diagram below is a simplified diagram of the succession of Kings for this period constructed in the main from the Bible record. Those Kings with a bold frame are mentioned in the Bible text. The remaining ones are those known from secular sources.
Figure 2.1 – Simplified Succession of Kings of the Period – Neo-Babylonian Empire.
Figure 2.2 – Simplified Succession of Kings of the Period – Post Babylon.
These summaries are ordered in time of writing as much as is practical, while dealing with whole chapters, using information within the chapter, or events which are referred to, which can be assigned a time based on the same event mentioned in another book or chapter which does have a time reference and the same context to the event which makes it clearly identifiable.
- Verse numbers are in brackets (1-14) and those in bold (15-18) indicate an important point.
- Time Periods with years in brackets such as “(3th to 6th Year of Jehoiakim?) (Crown Prince + 1st to 3rd Year Nebuchadnezzar)” indicate calculated years. These are based on events in this chapter matching or clearly following other chapters which are clearly dated.
- Time Periods with years not in brackets such as “Fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, 1st Year of Nebuchadrezzar” shows both years are mentioned in the Bible text and hence are a solid, reliable synchronism. This synchronism is a matching of regnal years between two Kings, Jehoiakim and Nebuchadnezzar. Therefore any events stated as occurring in the 4th year of Jehoiakim in other scriptures, could be said to have also occurred in the 1st Year of Nebuchadnezzar because of this link, and vice-versa, any event stated or linked to the 1st year of Nebuchadnezzar could be said to have occurred in the 4th year of Jehoiakim.
Let us start our journey of discovery through time.
a. Summary of Isaiah 23
Time Period: Written after the attack of King Sargon of Assyria on Ashdod (c. 712 BCE)
- (1-14) Pronouncement against Tyre. Jehovah to cause downfall of Tyre and use Chaldeans (Babylonians) to cause destruction and ruination.
- (15-18) Tyre to be forgotten for 70 years before being allowed to rebuild itself.
Time Period: Beginning of rule of Jehoiakim (v1, Before Jeremiah 24 and 25).
- (1-7) Plea to Judah to listen because of calamity Jehovah is intending to bring.
- (8-15) Prophets and Priests turn against Jeremiah for prophesying doom and want to put him to death.
- (16-24) Princes and people defend Jeremiah on basis that he is prophesying for Jehovah and some older men speak on behalf of Jeremiah, giving examples of the same message from previous prophets.
Time Period: Beginning of reign of Jehoiakim, Repeats Message to Zedekiah (Same as Jeremiah 24).
- (1-4) Yoke bars and Bands sent to Edom, Moab, sons of Ammon, Tyre and Sidon.
- (5-7) Jehovah has given all these lands to Nebuchadnezzar, they will have to serve him and successors, until the time of his land comes.
- (5-7) … I have given it to whom it has proved right in my eyes, … even the wild beasts of the field I have given him to serve him. (See Jeremiah 28:14 and Daniel 2:38[v]).
- (8) Nation that does not serve Nebuchadnezzar will be finished off with sword, famine, and pestilence.
- (9-10) Do not listen to false prophets who are saying ‘you will not have to serve the King of Babylon’.
- (11-22) Keep serving the King of Babylon and you will not suffer devastation.
- (12-22) Message of first 11 verses repeated to Zedekiah at a later date.
Verse 12 as v1-7, Verse 13 as v8, Verse 14 as v9-10,
Rest of temple utensils to go to Babylon if you do not serve Nebuchadnezzar.
Time Period: Third (3rd) year of Jehoiakim. (v1)
- (1) In the 3rd Year of Jehoiakim, King Nebuchadnezzar comes and lays siege to Jerusalem.
- (2) At a future time, (likely Jehoiakim’s 4th year), Jehovah gives Jehoiakim over to Nebuchadnezzar and some of the utensils of the temple. (See 2 Kings 24, Jeremiah 27:16, 2 Chronicles 35:7-10)
- (3-4) Daniel and his friends taken to Babylon
Time Period: Fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, 1st Year of Nebuchadrezzar[vi]. (v1, 7 years before Summary of Jeremiah 24).
- (1-7) Warnings been given for previous 23 years, but no note taken.
- (8-10) Jehovah bringing Nebuchadnezzar against Judah and surrounding nations to destroy, make object of astonishment, devastated.
- (11)[vii] Nations will have to serve Babylon 70 years.
- (12) When seventy years have been fulfilled, King of Babylon will be called to account, Babylon to become a desolate waste.
- (13-14) servitude and destruction of nations will happen for certainty because of Judah and nations actions in disobeying warnings.
- (15-26) Cup of wine of Jehovah’s rage to be drunk by Jerusalem and Judah – make them a devastated place, object of astonishment, whistle at, malediction – (as at time of Jeremiah writing the prophecy[viii]). Pharaoh, Kings of Uz, Philistines, Ashkelon, Gaza, Ekron, Ashdod, Edom, Moab, Sons of Ammon, Kings of Tyre and Sidon, Dedan, Tema, Buz, Kings of the Arabs, Zimri, Elam, and Medes.
- (27-38) No escape from Jehovah’s judgement.
f. Summary of Jeremiah 46
Time Period: 4th Year of Jehoiakim. (v2)
- (1-12) Records Battle between Pharaoh Necho and King Nebuchadrezzar at Carchemish in 4th year of Jehoiakim.
- (13-26) Egypt to lose to Babylon, to be prepared for devastation by Nebuchadrezzar. Egypt would be given into the hands of Nebuchadrezzar and his servants for a period of time, and later she would have residents once again.
Time Period: 4th Year of Jehoiakim. (v1), 5th Year of Jehoiakim. (v9)
- (1-4) 4th year of Jehoiakim Jeremiah commanded to write down all the prophecies and proclamations he had made since the days of Josiah in the hope they would repent, and Jehovah would be able to forgive them.
- (5-8) Baruch reads what he had recorded of Jeremiah’s proclamations at the temple.
- (9-13) 5th year of Jehoiakim (9th Month) Baruch repeats the reading at the temple.
- (14-19) Princes get private reading of Jeremiah’s words.
- (20-26) Jeremiah’s scrolls read before the King and all the Princes. They were then thrown into the brazier and burnt. Jehovah keeps Jeremiah and Baruch hidden from the King’s anger.
- (27-32) Jehovah tells Jeremiah to write a fresh copy, and Jehoiakim’s lack of burial at death foretold. Jehovah promises to bring Jehoiakim and his supporters to account for their actions.
Time Period: (4th to 7th Year of Jehoiakim?) (1st to 4th Year Nebuchadnezzar), (11th year Jehoiakim (v8)), (8th Nebuchadnezzar), 3 months reign of Jehoiachin (v8) and reign of Zedekiah
- (1-6) Jehoiakim serves Nebuchadnezzar 3 years, then rebels (against Jeremiahs warnings).
- (7) Babylon ruled from Torrent Valley of Egypt to Euphrates by the end of this period.
- (8-12) (11th Year of Jehoiakim), Jehoiachin rules for 3 months during siege by Nebuchadnezzar (8th Year).
- (13-16) Jehoiachin and many others taken in exile in Babylon. 10,000 taken, only lowly class remaining. 7,000 were valiant men, 1,000 craftsmen.
- (17-18) Nebuchadnezzar puts Zedekiah on the throne of Judah who rules for 11 years.
- (19-20) Zedekiah was a bad king and rebelled against the King of Babylon.
Time Period: Late in the reign of Jehoiakim (v18, Reigned 11 Years,).
- (1-9) Warning to render Justice if he is to remain king. Disobedience and failing to exercise justice will lead to end of house of King of Judah and destruction of Jerusalem.
- (10-12) Told not to weep for Shallum (Jehoahaz) who will die in exile in Egypt.
- (13-17) Repeats warning to exercise justice.
- (18-23) Jehoiakim’s death and lack of dignified burial foretold, because of not listening to Jehovah’s voice.
- (24-28) Coniah (Jehoiachin) warned of his future. He would be given into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar and go into exile with his mother and die in exile.
- (29-30) Jehoiachin would go down as ‘childless’ because none of his offspring would rule on the throne of David and in Judah.
Time Period: Not exactly clear. Potentially late in the reign of Josiah, but definitely at the latest by early in the reign of Zedekiah. By referring to the ignoring of the Sabbath it could be in the reign of Jehoiakim or reign of Zedekiah.
- (1-4) Jews will have to serve their enemies in a land they have not known.
- (5-11) Encouraged to trust in Jehovah, who would then bless them. Warning about treacherous heart of man.
- (12-18) All those hearing and ignoring Jehovah’s warnings will be put to shame. Jeremiah prays that shame will not fall on him, as he has trusted in and obeyed Jehovah’s requests and has been honest with Jehovah.
- (19-26) Jeremiah told to warn the Kings of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem in particular to obey the Sabbath Law.
- (27) Consequences of not obeying Sabbath would be destruction of Jerusalem by fire.
Time Period: Likely Early in the reign of Zedekiah. (Reigned 11 Years)
- (1-2) Woe to Shepherds, abusing and scattering the sheep of Israel / Judah.
- (3-4) Remnant of sheep to be gathered back with good shepherds.
- (5-6) Prophesy about Jesus.
- (7-8) Exiles will return. (Those already taken with Jehoiachin)
- (9-40) Warning: Do not listen to false prophets whom Jehovah did not send.
l. Summary of Jeremiah 24
Time Period: Very Early in Reign of Zedekiah when the deportation of Jehoiachin (a.k.a. Jeconiah), princes, craftsmen, builders, etc., had just finished. (Same as Jeremiah 27, 7 Years after Jeremiah 25).
- (1-3) Two Baskets of figs, good and bad (not edible).
- (4-7) Exiles that have been sent away are like good figs, will return from exile.[ix]
- (8-10) Zedekiah, princes, remnant of Jerusalem, those in Egypt are bad figs – will get sword famine, pestilence until finished off.
Time Period: 4th Year of reign of Zedekiah (v1, Just after as Jeremiah 24 and 27).
- (1-17) Hananiah prophesies that exile (of Jehoiachin et al) will end within 2 years, Jeremiah reminds all that Jehovah has said it will not. Hananiah dies within two months, as prophesied by Jeremiah.
- (11) Hananiah’s false prophecy that Jehovah would “break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar the King of Babylon within two full years more from off the neck of all the nations.”
- (14) Yoke of iron to replace Yoke of wood put on neck of all nations, to serve Nebuchadnezzar, they must serve him, even wild beasts of the field I will give him. (See Jeremiah 27:6 and Daniel 2:38[x]).
Time Period: (4th Year of Zedekiah due to events following on from Jeremiah 28)
- Letter sent to Exiles with Zedekiah’s messengers to Nebuchadnezzar with Instructions.
- (1-4) Letter sent by hand of Elasah to Judean Exiles (of the Jehoiachin Exile) in Babylon.
- (5-9) Exiles to build houses there, plant gardens etc. because they would be there some time.
- (10) In accord with fulfilling of 70 years for (at) Babylon I shall turn my attention and bring them back.
- (11-14) If they would pray and seek Jehovah, then he would act and return them. (See Daniel 9:3, 1 Kings 8:46-52[xi]).
- (15-19) The Jews not in exile will be pursued by sword, famine, pestilence, as they are not listening to Jehovah.
- (20-32) A message to the Jews in exile – do not listen to prophets saying you will return soon.
Time Period: 4th Year of Zedekiah (v59, Events following Jeremiah 28 & 29)
- Letter sent to Exiles in Babylon with Seraiah.
- (1-5) Destruction of Babylon foretold.
- (6-10) Babylon beyond healing.
- (11-13) Fall of Babylon at the hand of the Medes foretold.
- (14-25) Cause of Babylon’s destruction is their treatment of Judah and Jerusalem (e.g., destruction and exile of Jehoiachin, which had recently taken place.
- (26-58) More details on how Babylon will fall to the Medes.
- (59-64) Instructions given to Seraiah to pronounce these prophecies against Babylon when he reaches there.
Time Period: Just before final siege of Jerusalem (9th Year Zedekiah from events, 17th Year of Nebuchadnezzar)[xii]
- (1-5) Warning to Kings of Judah of calamity because they have and are worshipping Baal and have filled Jerusalem with the blood of innocent ones.
- (6-9) Jerusalem will be the object of astonishment, its inhabitants will resort to cannibalism.
- (10-13) Pot broken in front of witnesses to show how the city of Jerusalem and its people would be broken.
- (14-15) Jeremiah repeats the warning of calamity on Jerusalem and its cities because they have hardened their neck.
Time Period: 10th Year of Zedekiah, 18th Year of Nebuchadnezzar[xiii], during siege of Jerusalem. (v1)
- (1-5) Jerusalem under siege.
- (6-15) Purchase by Jeremiah of Land from his uncle to signify Judah would return from exile. (See Jeremiah 37:11,12 – while siege temporarily lifted while Nebuchadnezzar dealt with Egyptian threat)
- (16-25) Prayer of Jeremiah to Jehovah.
- (26-35) Destruction of Jerusalem confirmed.
- (36-44) Return from exile promised.
Time Period: During siege of Jerusalem (10th – 11th Year of Zedekiah, 18th – 19th Year of Nebuchadnezzar, based on events following on from Jeremiah 32 and Jeremiah 33).
- (1-6) Fiery destruction for Jerusalem foretold.
- (7) Only Lachish and Azekah remain of all fortified cities that had not fallen to King of Babylon.[xiv]
- (8-11) Liberty proclaimed to servants in accord with 7th Year Sabbath Year, but soon retracted.
- (12-21) Reminded of law of liberty and told would be destroyed for this.
- (22) Jerusalem and Judah would be made desolate.
Time Period: 10th month 10th Year Jehoiachin’s Exile (v1, 10th Year Zedekiah), and 27th Year Jehoiachin’s Exile (v17, 34th Regnal Year Nebuchadnezzar).
- (1-12) Egypt to be desolated and uninhabited for 40 years. Egyptians to be scattered.
- (13-16) Egyptians to be gathered back and will never again dominate other nations.
- (17-21) 27th Year of Jehoiachin’s exile, Ezekiel prophesies that Egypt is to be given as plunder to Nebuchadnezzar.
Time Period: (10th or 11th Year) of Zedekiah, (18th or 19th Year of Nebuchadnezzar[xv]), during siege of Jerusalem. (v16)
- (1-15) Jeremiah put in cistern for prophesying destruction, rescued by Ebed-Melech.
- (16-17) Jeremiah tells Zedekiah if he goes out to Babylonians, he will live, and Jerusalem will not be burned with fire. (destroyed, devastated)
- (18-28) Zedekiah secretly meets Jeremiah, but afraid of Princes so does nothing. Jeremiah under protective custody until fall of Jerusalem.
Time Period: (9th to 11th Year of Zedekiah), (17th to 19th Year of Nebuchadnezzar[xvi]), during siege of Jerusalem.
- Most Inhabitants of Jerusalem will die and remainder including Zedekiah would be given into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.
Time Period: 9th (v1) to 11th (v2) Year of Zedekiah, (17th to 19th Year of Nebuchadnezzar[xvii]), during siege of Jerusalem.
- (1-7) Start of Siege of Jerusalem, escape and capture of Zedekiah.
- (8-9) Jerusalem burnt.
- (11-18) Nebuchadnezzar gives orders to rescue Jeremiah and Ebed-Melech given freedom.
Time Period: 7th to 8th month 11th Year Zedekiah (deposed), (19th Year Nebuchadnezzar).
- (1-6) Jeremiah allowed to choose where to live by Nebuzaradan (Nebuchadnezzar’s chief of the Bodyguard)
- (7-12) Jews gather to Gedaliah at Mizpah. Jews from Moab, Ammon, and Edom, etc. came to Gedaliah to care for the land.
- (13-16) Gedaliah warned of assassination plot instigated by King of sons of Ammon.
Time Period: 9th (v1) to 11th (v2) Year of Zedekiah, (17th to) 19th (v8) Year of Nebuchadnezzar[xviii], during and immediately after siege of Jerusalem.
- (1-4) Siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar from 9th to 11th year of Zedekiah.
- (5-7) Chase and capture of Zedekiah.
- (8-11) 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar, Jerusalem and Temple burned with fire, walls destroyed, exile for most remaining.
- (12-17) Lowly people left, Temple treasures remaining from time of Jehoiachin taken to Babylon.
- (18-21) Priests Killed.
- (22-24) Small remnant left under Gedaliah.
- (25-26) Assassination of Gedaliah.
- (27-30) Release of Jehoiachin by Evil-Merodach in 37th year of Exile.
Time Period: (Approximately 8th month 11th Year Zedekiah (now deposed), 19th Year Nebuchadnezzar), soon after the murder of Gedaliah.
- (1-6) Remnant in Judah ask Jeremiah to enquire of Jehovah and promise to obey Jehovah’s reply.
- (7-12) The reply given by Jehovah was to remain in the land of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar would not attack or remove them.
- (13-18) Warning given that if they disobeyed Jehovah’s answer and instead went to Egypt then the destruction they feared, would find them there in Egypt.
- (19-22) Because they had asked Jehovah and then ignored his answer, they would be destroyed in Egypt.
Time Period: Likely a month or so after the murder of Gedaliah and flight of remnant to Egypt. (19th Year of Nebuchadnezzar)
- (1-3) Jeremiah accused of falsehood by the people in giving instructions not to go to Egypt.
- (4-7) Remnant ignore Jeremiah and arrive in Tah’panhes in Egypt.
- (8-13) Jeremiah prophesies to Jews in Tah’panhes that Nebuchadnezzar will come there and destroy them and strike the land of Egypt, destroying their temples.
Time Period: Likely a month or so after the murder of Gedaliah and flight of remnant to Egypt. (19th Year of Nebuchadnezzar)
- (1-6) ‘today they [Jerusalem and cities of Judah] are in ruins, without an inhabitant. It is because of the evil things they did to offend me [Jehovah] … ’
- (7-10) Warns of calamity if they (Jews) continue in their wayward course.
- (11-14) The remnant that fled to Egypt would die there by Jehovah’s punishment with only a handful of escapees.
- (15-19) All the Jewish men and women living in Pathros, Egypt, say they will continue sacrificing to the Queen of heaven, because they had no problems when they did that.
- (20-25) Jeremiah says it is precisely because you made those sacrifices that Jehovah brought the calamity upon them.
- (26-30) Only a few will escape the sword and return from Egypt to Judah. They will have to know whose word has come true, Jehovah’s or theirs. The sign that this will happen is the giving of Pharaoh Hophra[xix] into the hands of his enemies.
Figure 2.3 – From Start of Babylonian World Power to 19th Year Jehoiachin’s Exile.
This section of summaries of relevant Bible chapters is concluded in our 3rd article in the series, continuing on from the 19th year of Jehoiachin’s Exile.
Please continue with us in our Journey of Discovery through Time…..
[i] Arranged chronologically as far as possible according to time written as recorded in the Bible text.
[ii] “Chronologically” means “in a way that follows the order in time in which events or records occurred”
[iii] “Synchronisms” means co-incidence in time, contemporaneous, simultaneous.
[iv] All scriptures quoted are from the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures 1984 Reference Edition unless otherwise stated.
[v] Daniel 2:36-38 ‘This is the dream, and its interpretation we shall say before the king. You, O King, the king of kings, you to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom, the might and the strength and the dignity and into whose hand he has given, wherever the sons of mankind are dwelling, the beasts of the field and the winged creatures of the heavens, and whom he has made ruler over all of them, you yourself are the head of gold.’
[vi] In the Book of Jeremiah, the years of Nebuchadnezzar appear to be counted as per Egyptian reckoning. (This is likely because of the Egyptian influence around the end of King Josiah’s reign and into Jehoiakim’s reign and that Jeremiah completed writing his book in exile in Egypt.) Egyptian reckoning for Kings did not have a concept of regnal years like the Babylonians and did not have an accession year as year 0, but rather as a partial year One. Hence when reading Year 1 Nebuchadnezzar in Jeremiah this is understood to be equivalent to Year 0 Babylonian Regnal Year as found on cuneiform tablets. Any quotation from the Bible will use the Biblical Year recorded (or calculated). For reading any secular documents recording cuneiform data for Nebuchadnezzar we therefore need to deduct 1 Year from Nebuchadnezzar’s Biblical year of reign to obtain his cuneiform Babylonian Regnal Year Number.
[vii] Scripture verses in BOLD are key verses. All scriptures will be discussed in detail later.
[viii] See later discussion of Jeremiah 25:15-26 in the Section: Analysis of Key Scriptures.
[ix] Jeremiah 24:5 NWT Reference 1984 Edition: “Like these good figs, so I shall regard the exiles of Judah, whom I will send away from this place to the land of the Chaldeans, in a good way”. NWT 2013 Edition (Grey) “whom I have sent away from this place”. This revision means the NWT now agrees with all other translations and shows Jehovah through Jeremiah was referring to those who had just been taken into exile with Jehoiachin, as Nebuchadnezzar put Zedekiah on the throne.
[x] See Previous Footnote for Daniel 2:38.
[xi] See 1 Kings 8:46-52. See Part 4, Section 2, “Earlier Prophecies Fulfilled by the events of the Jewish Exile and return”.
[xii] See Previous footnote re Years of Nebuchadnezzar. Year 17 = Regnal Year 16.
[xiii] See Previous footnote re Years of Nebuchadnezzar. Year 18 = Regnal Year 17.
[xiv] Additional summary of Lachish Letters translation and background available from the author.
[xv] See Previous footnote re Years of Nebuchadnezzar. Biblical Reign Year 19 = Babylonian Regnal Year 18.
[xvi] See Previous footnote re Years of Nebuchadnezzar. Biblical Reign Year 19 = Babylonian Regnal Year 18, Biblical Year 18 = Babylonian Regnal Year 17, Biblical Year 17 = Babylonian Regnal Year 16.
[xvii] See Previous footnote re Years of Nebuchadnezzar. Year 19 = Regnal Year 18, Year 18 = Regnal Year 17, Year 17 = Regnal Year 16.
[xviii] See Previous footnote re Years of Nebuchadnezzar. Year 19 = Regnal Year 18, Year 18 = Regnal Year 17, Year 17 = Regnal Year 16.
[xix] It is understood that the 3rd Year of Pharaoh Hophra was the 18th Babylonian Regnal Year of Nebuchadnezzar. Pharaoh Hophra was defeated (by Nebuchadnezzar and Ahmose) and replaced in Hophra’s 19th year, some 16 years later, equivalent to 34th Babylonian Regnal Year of Nebuchadnezzar. This was the same year as the prophecy of Ezekiel 29:17 where Nebuchadnezzar would be given Egypt as recompense for Tyre.