Reconciling the Messianic Prophecy of Daniel 9:24-27 with Secular History
Establishing Foundations for a Solution
To find any solutions to the problems we identified in parts 1 and 2 of our series, firstly we need to establish some foundations from which to work, otherwise, our endeavors to make sense of Daniel’s prophecy will be very difficult, if not impossible.
We, therefore, need to follow a structure or methodology. This includes ascertaining the starting point of Daniel’s Prophecy if possible. To be able to do this with any degree of certainty, we also need to ascertain the endpoint of his Prophecy as accurately as we can. Then we will have established a framework in which to work. This, in turn, will assist us with our possible solution.
We will, therefore, take a closer look at the text of Daniel 9 before moving on to ascertaining the endpoint of the 70 sevens, including a brief look at the dating of Jesus’ birth. We will then examine the candidates for the starting point of the prophecy. We shall also briefly examine what period the prophecy refers too, whether it is days, weeks, months, or years. This will give us an outline framework.
To fill out this framework we will then establish an outline order of events in the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther, as far as can be ascertained at first sight. We shall note these in relative dates by using the King’s name and regnal year/month, as at this stage we need their relativeness to other event dates rather than a strictly equivalent modern-day calendar day, month, and year.
A very important point to keep in mind is that the existing secular chronology is based almost entirely on that of Claudius Ptolemy,[i] an astronomist and chronologist who live in the 2nd Century AD, between c.100AD to c.170AD, between some 70 and 130 years after the start of Christ’s earthly ministry. This is over 400 years after the last of the Persian Kings died following the defeat by Alexander the Great. For an in-depth examination of problems encountered regarding accepting historical chronologies please refer to this very useful book entitled “The Romance of Bible Chronology” [ii].
Therefore, before we start examining what possible relative calendar year a particular King came to the throne or an event occurred, we need to establish our parameters. The logical place to start is the endpoint so we can work back. The closer the event is to our present time, usually the easier it is to ascertain facts. Additionally, we need to see if we can establish the starting point by working back from the endpoint.
B. A Closer Examination of the text of Daniel 9:24-27
It is important to examine the Hebrew text for Daniel 9 as perhaps certain words may have been translated with a bias towards existing interpretations. It also helps get the flavor for the overall meaning and avoids too narrow an interpretation of any particular word.
The Context of Daniel 9:24-27
The context of any passage of scripture is vital in helping a true understanding. This vision took place “in the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus of the seed of the Medes who had been made king of the Chaldeans.” (Daniel 9:1).[iii] We should note that this Darius was king of the Chaldeans, not the Medes and Persians, and he had been made king, implying a higher king which he served and appointed him. This would eliminate Darius the Great (I) who took the kingship of the Medes and Persians himself and thereby any other kingships of vassal or subservient kingdoms. Furthermore, Darius the Great was an Achaemenid, a Persian, which he and his descendants always proclaimed.
Darius 5:30 confirms “in that very night Belshazzar the Chaldean king was killed and Darius the Mede himself received the kingdom, being about sixty-two years old.”, and Daniel 6 gives an account of that first (and only) year of Darius, concluding with Daniel 6:28, “and as for this Daniel, he prospered in the kingdom of Darius and in the kingdom of Cyrus the Persian”.
In this first year of Darius the Mede, “Daniel, discerned by the books the number of the years concerning which the word of Jehovah had occurred to Jeremiah the prophet, for fulfilling the devastations of Jerusalem, seventy years.” (Daniel 9:2).[iv]
[For a fuller consideration of this passage of Daniel 9:1-4 in its context, please see “A Journey of Discovery Through Time”[v]].
[For a fuller consideration of the evidence for the existence in cuneiform records of a person identifiable as Darius the Mede, please see the following references: Darius the Mede a Reappraisal [vi] , and Ugbaru is Darius the Mede [vii]
As a result, Daniel proceeded to set his face to Jehovah God, with prayer, entreaties, fasting and sackcloth, and ashes. In the following verses, he asked for forgiveness on behalf of the nation of Israel. While he was still praying, the Angel Gabriel arrived by him and told him “O Daniel, now I have come forth to make you have insight with understanding” (Daniel 9:22b). What was the understanding and insight that Gabriel brought? Gabriel continued “So give consideration to the matter and have understanding in the thing seen” (Daniel 9:23). Then Angel Gabriel follows with the prophecy we are considering from Daniel 9:24-27.
Therefore, what important key points can we “give consideration to” and “have understanding in”?
- This takes place during the year following the fall of Babylon to Cyrus and Darius the Mede.
- Daniel had discerned that a period of 70 years for desolations for Jerusalem was close to being finished.
- Daniel played his part in its fulfillment not only by interpreting the writing on the wall to Belshazzar the night Babylon fell to the Medes and Persians, but also in repenting on behalf of the nation of Israel.
- Jehovah answers his prayer immediately. But why immediately?
- The account given to Daniel is that the nation of Israel was effectively on probation.
- That there would be a period of seventy sevens (the period could be weeks, years or most likely the larger weeks of years), rather than just seventy years like the 70 years just completed, during which the nation could terminate acting wickedly, and sinning, and make atonement for error. The immediacy of the reply would indicate that this period would start when the previous period of devastations ended.
- Hence, the start of the rebuilding of Jerusalem would end the devastations.
- Also, the start of the rebuilding of Jerusalem would start the period of seventy sevens of Daniel 9:24-27.
These points are strong evidence that the period of seventy sevens would start shortly rather than many years later.
Translation of Daniel 9:24-27
A review of the many translations of Daniel 9:24-27 on Biblehub[viii] for example, will show the casual reader a wide range of interpretation and reading of the translation for this passage. This can have an effect on evaluating the fulfillment or meaning of this passage. Therefore, the decision was taken to look at the literal translation of the Hebrew using the INT option. https://biblehub.com/interlinear/daniel/9-24.htm, etc.
The text shown below is there from the interlinear transliteration. (The Hebrew text is the Westminster Leningrad Codex).
Daniel 9:24 Verse 24:
“Seventy [sibim] sevens [sabuim] are determined for your people for your holy city to finish the transgression to make an end of sins and to make reconciliation for iniquity and to bring in everlasting righteousness and to seal up vision and prophecy and to anoint the Holy Holies [qadasim] .”
Everlasting righteousness would only be possible with the ransom sacrifice of the Messiah (Hebrews 9:11-12). This would, therefore, suggest that the “Holy Holies” or “the Most Holy” is an allusion to the meaning of the sacrifices that took place in the real Holy of Holies, rather than to the literal place in the Temple. This would agree with Hebrews 9, in particular, verses 23-26, where the Apostle Paul indicates that Jesus’ blood was offered in heaven instead of a literal place of the Most Holy, as the Jewish High Priest did every year. Also, it was done “at the conclusion of the systems of things to put sin away through the sacrifice of himself” (Hebrews 9:26b).
Daniel 9:25 Verse 25:
“Therefore know and understand [that] from the going forth [mosa] of the word/command [dabar] to restore/turn back/return [lehasib] and build/rebuild [welibnowt] Jerusalem until Messiah the Prince sevens [sabuim] seven [sibah] and sevens [sabuim] and sixty-two again and shall be built the street and the wall and/also even in troublesome times.”
Points to note:
We were to “know and understand (have insight)” that the start of this period would be “from the going forth”, not the repeating, “of the word or command”. This would therefore logically exclude any command for the restarting of the building if it had previously been told to start and had started and had been interrupted.
The word or command was also to be to “restore/return”. As this was written by Daniel to the exiles in Babylonia this would be understood to be referring to returning to Judah. This return would also include to “build/rebuild” Jerusalem now that the devastations were finishing. An important aspect of understanding which “word” this was, is that Jerusalem would not be complete without the Temple and the Temple, likewise, would not be complete without Jerusalem being rebuilt to house the infrastructure for worships and offerings at the Temple.
The time period was to be split into a period of seven sevens which must have some significance and a period of sixty-two sevens. Daniel immediately goes on to give in the context a clue as to what this significant event would be and why the period was split when he says that “again shall be built the street and the wall even in troublesome times”. The indication was therefore that the completion of the building of the Temple which was the center of Jerusalem and the building of Jerusalem itself would not be accomplished for some time due to the “troublesome times”.
Daniel 9:26 Verse 26:
“And after the sevens [sabuim] and sixty-two shall be cut off Messiah but not for himself and the city and the sanctuary the people shall destroy of the prince who is to come and the end of it with a flood/judgment [bassetep] and till the end of the war desolations are determined.”
Interestingly the Hebrew word for “flood” can be translated as “judgment”. This meaning is probably due to the use of the word in the scriptures by the Bible writers to bring back to the reader’s minds the Biblical flood which was a judgment from God. It also makes more sense in context, as both verse 24 and verse 27 of the prophecy indicate this time being a time of judgment. It is also easier to identify this event if it was a judgment rather than referring to an army flooding over the land of Israel. In Matthew 23:29-38, Jesus made it clear that he had judged the nation of Israel as a whole and in particular the Pharisees, and told them “How are you to flee from the judgment of Gehenna?” and that “Truly I say to you, All these things will come upon this generation”.
This judgment of destruction came upon the generation that saw Jesus when Jerusalem was destroyed by a Prince (Titus, son of the new Emperor Vespasian and hence “a Prince”) and a “people of the prince who is to come”, the Romans, the people of the prince Titus, who would be the 4th World Empire starting with Babylon (Daniel 2:40, Daniel 7:19). It is interesting to note that Titus gave orders for the Temple not to be touched, but his army disobeyed his order and destroyed the Temple, thereby fulfilling this part of the prophecy in exact detail. The period of 67AD to 70AD was full of desolations for the land of Judah as the Roman army methodically stamped out resistance.
Daniel 9:27 Verse 27:
“And he shall confirm a covenant with many for one seven [sabua] but in the middle of the seven he shall bring to an end to sacrifice and offering and on the wing of abominations shall be one who makes desolate and even until the consummation and which is determined is poured out on the desolate.”
“He” refers to the Messiah the main subject of the passage. Who were the many? Matthew 15:24 records Jesus as saying, “In answer he said: “I was not sent forth to any but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel”. This would, therefore, indicate that “many” was the nation of Israel, the first-century Jews.
The length of the ministry of Jesus can be calculated to be about three and a half years. This length would match the understanding that he [the Messiah] would “bring an end to sacrifice and offering” “in the middle of the seven” [years], by his death fulfilling the purpose of the sacrifices and offerings and thereby negating the need for it to continue (See Hebrews 10). This period of three and a half [years] would require 4 Passovers.
Was Jesus ministry three and a half years?
It is easier to work back from the time of his death
- The final Passover (4th) which Jesus ate with his disciples the evening before his death.
- John 6:4 mentions another Passover (the 3rd).
- Further back, John 5:1 only mentions “a festival of the Jews”, and is thought to be the 2nd[ix]
- Finally, John 2:13 mentions one Passover at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry, not long after turning the water into wine in the early days of his ministry after his baptism. This would match the four required Passovers to allow for a ministry of about three and a half years.
Seven years from the start of Jesus Ministry
What changed at the end of seven [years] from the beginning of Jesus’ ministry? Acts 10:34-43 records what Peter told Cornelius (in 36 AD) “At this Peter opened his mouth and said: “For a certainty I perceive that God is not partial, 35 but in every nation the man that fears him and works righteousness is acceptable to him. 36 He sent out the word to the sons of Israel to declare to them the good news of peace through Jesus Christ: this One is Lord of all [others]”.
From the beginning of Jesus’ ministry in 29 AD to the conversion of Cornelius in 36 AD, “the many” Jews of natural Israel had the opportunity to become “sons of God”, but with the nation of Israel as a whole rejecting Jesus as the Messiah and the good news being preached by the disciples, the opportunity was opened to the Gentiles.
Furthermore the “the wing of abominations” would follow shortly, as it did, starting in 66 AD culminating in the destruction of Jerusalem and the nation of Israel as a separately identifiable entity in 70 AD. With the destruction of Jerusalem went the destruction of all the genealogical records meaning that no-one in future would be able to prove they were of the line of David, (or of a priestly line, etc.), and hence would mean that if the Messiah were to come after that time, they would not be able to prove they had the legal right. (Ezekiel 21:27)[x]
C. Confirming the Endpoint of the 70 weeks of years
The account in Luke 3:1 pinpoints the appearance of John the Baptist as occurring in “the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar”. The accounts of Matthew and Luke show that Jesus came to be baptized by John the Baptist a few months later. The 15th year of Tiberius Caesar is understood to have been 18 September 28 AD to 18 September 29 AD. With Jesus baptism in early September 29 AD, a 3.5-year ministry leads to his death in April 33 AD.[xi]
C.1. The Conversion of the Apostle Paul
We also need to examine the early record of the Apostle Paul’s movements immediately following his conversion.
A famine occurred in Rome in 51 AD during the reign of Claudius, according to the following references: (Tacitus, Ann. XII, 43; Suet., Claudius 18. 2; Orosius, Hist. VII, 6. 17; A. Schoene, Eusebii chronicorum libri duo, Berlin, 1875, II, pp. 152 f.) Claudius died in 54 AD and there were no famines in 43 AD nor 47 AD nor 48 AD.[xii]
The famine in 51 AD is, therefore, the best candidate for the famine mentioned in Acts 11:27-30, which marked the end of a period of 14 years (Galatians 2:1). A 14-year period of what? The period between Paul’s first visit to Jerusalem, when he saw only the Apostle Peter, and later when he assisted in bringing famine relief to Jerusalem (Acts 11:27-30).
The first visit of the Apostle Paul to Jerusalem was 3 years after his conversion following a trip to Arabia and return to Damascus. This would take us back from 51 AD to circa 35 AD. (51-14=37, 37-2yr interval = 35 AD. Obviously Paul’s conversion on the road to Damascus had to be a little while after Jesus’ death to allow for his persecution of the apostles and early Christian disciples. This allows the date of April 33 AD to be correct for Jesus’ death and resurrection with an interval of up to two years before Saul’s conversion to Paul.
C.2. The Expectation of the Arrival of the Messiah – Bible Record
Luke 3:15 records the expectation of the arrival of the Messiah that was around at the time John the Baptist started preaching, in these words:” Now as the people were in expectation and all were reasoning in their hearts about John: “May he perhaps be the Christ?”.
In Luke 2:24-35 the narrative states:” And, look! there was a man in Jerusalem named Simʹe·on, and this man was righteous and reverent, waiting for Israel’s consolation, and holy spirit was upon him. 26 Furthermore, it had been divinely revealed to him by the holy spirit that he would not see death before he had seen the Christ of Jehovah. 27 Under the power of the spirit he now came into the temple; and as the parents brought the young child Jesus in to do for it according to the customary practice of the law, 28 he himself received it into his arms and blessed God and said: 29 “Now, Sovereign Lord, you are letting your slave go free in peace according to your declaration; 30 because my eyes have seen your means of saving 31 that you have made ready in the sight of all the peoples, 32 a light for removing the veil from the nations and a glory of your people Israel.”
Therefore, according to the Bible record, there was definitely an expectation around this time at the beginning of the 1st Century AD that the Messiah would come.
C.3. The Attitude of King Herod, his Jewish Advisors, and the Magi
Further, Matthew 2:1-6 shows that King Herod and his Jewish advisors were able to ascertain where the Messiah would be born. Obviously, there is no indication that they dismissed the event as unlikely because the expectation was of a completely different timeframe. In fact, Herod took action when the Magi returned to their land without returning to report to Herod in Jerusalem the whereabouts of the Messiah. He ordered the killing of all male children under the age of 2 years in an attempt to kill the Messiah (Jesus) (Matthew 2:16-18).
C.4. The Expectation of the Arrival of the Messiah – Extra-Biblical Record
What extra-biblical evidence is there for this expectation?
- C.4.1. Qumran Scroll
The Qumran community of the Essenes wrote the Dead Sea scroll 4Q175 which is dated to 90 BC. It quoted the following scriptures referring to the Messiah:
Deuteronomy 5:28-29, Deuteronomy 18:18-19, Numbers 24:15-17, Deuteronomy 33:8-11, Joshua 6:26.
Numbers 24:15-17 reads in part: “A star will certainly step forth out of Jacob, and a sceptre will indeed rise out of Israel”.
Deuteronomy 18:18 reads in part “A prophet I shall raise up for them from the midst of their brothers, like you [Moses]”.
For more information of the Essenes view of Daniel’s Messianic prophecy see E.11. in the next part of our series – part 4 under Checking the Starting Point.
The picture below is of that scroll 4Q175.
Figure C.4‑1 Picture of Qumran Scroll 4Q175
- C.4.2 A Coin from the 1st century BC
The prophecy in Numbers 24 regarding “a star out of Jacob” was used as the basis for one side of a coin used in Judea, during the 1st century BC and 1st Century. As you can see from the picture of the widow’s mite coin below, it had the “messianic” star on one side based on Numbers 24:15. The picture is of a bronze mite, also known as a Lepton (meaning small).
Figure C.4‑2 Bronze Widow’s mite from 1st Century with Messianic Star
This is a bronze Widows mite that shows the Messianic Star on one side from the late 1st Century BC and early 1st Century AD.
- C.4.3 The Star and the Magi
In Matthew 2:1-12 the accounts read “After Jesus had been born in Bethʹle·hem of Ju·deʹa in the days of Herod the king, look! astrologers from eastern parts came to Jerusalem, 2 saying: “Where is the one born king of the Jews? For we saw his star [when we were] in the east, and we have come to do him obeisance.” 3 At hearing this King Herod was agitated, and all Jerusalem along with him; 4 and on gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people he began to inquire of them where the Christ was to be born. 5 They said to him: “In Bethʹle·hem of Ju·deʹa; for this is how it has been written through the prophet, 6 ‘And you, O Bethʹle·hem of the land of Judah, are by no means the most insignificant [city] among the governors of Judah; for out of you will come forth a governing one, who will shepherd my people, Israel.’”
7 Then Herod secretly summoned the astrologers and carefully ascertained from them the time of the star’s appearing; 8 and, when sending them to Bethʹle·hem, he said: “Go make a careful search for the young child, and when YOU have found it report back to me, that I too may go and do it obeisance.” 9 When they had heard the king, they went their way; and, look! the star they had seen [when they were] in the east went ahead of them, until it came to a stop above where the young child was. 10 On seeing the star they rejoiced very much indeed. 11 And when they went into the house they saw the young child with Mary its mother, and, falling down, they did obeisance to it. They also opened their treasures and presented it with gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh. 12 However, because they were given divine warning in a dream not to return to Herod, they withdrew to their country by another way.”
This passage of scripture has been a subject of dispute and speculation for nearly two thousand years. It raises many questions such as:
- Did God miraculously place a star that drew astrologers to Jesus’ birth?
- If so, why bring astrologers who were condemned in scripture?
- Was it the Devil who created “a star” and that the Devil did this in an attempt to thwart God’s purpose?
The author of this article has read many attempts to explain these events without resorting to fanciful speculation over the years, but none really gave a complete plausible answer in the author’s opinion at least, until now. Please see the D.2. reference below.
Relevant points to the investigation of “the star and the Magi”
- The wise men, having seen the star in their homeland, which was perhaps Babylon or Persia, connected it with the promise of the Messianic King of the Jewish faith with which they would have been familiar because of the number of Jews still living in Babylonia and Persia.
- The term “Magi” was used for Wise men in Babylonia and Persia.
- The wise men then traveled to Judaea in a normal manner, perhaps taking some weeks, traveling in the daytime.
- They asked in Jerusalem for clarification as to where the Messiah was expected to be born (hence the star was not moving as they moved, to show the way, hour by hour). There they ascertained that the Messiah was due to be born in Bethlehem and so they traveled onto Bethlehem.
- There on arrival at Bethlehem, they again saw that same “star” above them (verse 9).
This means “the star” was not sent by God. Why would Jehovah God use astrologers or pagan wise men to draw attention to the birth of Jesus, when astrology was condemned in the Mosaic Law? Additionally, these facts would rule out that the star was some supernatural event provided by Satan the Devil. This leaves us with the option that the manifestation of the star was a natural event that was interpreted by these wise men as pointing to the Messiah’s arrival.
Why is this event even mentioned in the scriptures? Simply because it gives the cause and context and explanation for Herod’s murder of the children of Bethlehem up to 2 years of age and the flight into Egypt by Joseph and Mary, taking young Jesus with them.
Was King Herod motivated by the Devil in this? It is unlikely, although we cannot discount the possibility. It certainly was not necessary. King Herod was so paranoid about any slightest hint of opposition. A promised Messiah for the Jews certainly represented potential opposition. He had previously killed many members of his own family including a wife (Mariamne I in around 29 BC) and around this very time, three of his sons (Antipater II – 4 BC?, Alexander – 7 BC?, Aristobulus IV – 7 BC?) whom he accused of trying to kill him. So, he needed no prompting to go after a promised Jewish Messiah which could likely cause rebellion by the Jews and potentially strip Herod of his Kingdom.
D. Dating the Birth of Jesus
For those who wish to investigate this properly the following papers available free of charge on the internet are recommended. [xiii]
D.1. Herod the Great and Jesus, Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence (2015) Author: Gerard Gertoux
In particular, please see pages 51-66.
The author Gerard Gertoux dates Jesus birth to 29th September 2 BC with a very in-depth analysis of the dating of events of the period which narrow down the time window in which Jesus must have been born. It is definitely worth reading for those with an interest in history.
This author gives the date of Jesus Death as Nisan 14, 33 AD.
D.2. The Star of Bethlehem, Author: Dwight R Hutchinson
The author Dwight R Hutchinson dates Jesus’ birth to the period of late December 3 BC to early January 2 BC. This investigation is focused on providing a logical and reasonable explanation for the account of Matthew 2 about the astrologers.
This author also gives the date for Jesus’ death as Nisan 14, 33 AD.
These dates are very close to each other and have no material effect on the date of Jesus’ death or the beginning of his ministry which are the most important points to work back from. However, they do give extra weight to confirming that the dates for Jesus’ ministry and death are very close to the correct date or indeed the correct date.
It also means that the endpoint of the 70 sevens could definitely not be Jesus’ birth, as there would be great difficulty in establishing the exact date.
To be continued in Part 4 …. Checking the Starting Point
[iii] There are a number of suggestions as to who Darius the Mede was. The best candidate appears to be Cyaraxes II or Harpagus, son of Astyages, King of Media. See Herodotus – The Histories I:127-130,162,177-178
He was called “Lieutenant of Cyrus” by Strabo (Geography VI:1) and “Commandant of Cyrus” by Diodorus Siculus (Historical Library IX:31:1). Harpagus is called Oibaras by Ctesias (Persica §13,36,45). According to Flavius Josephus, Cyrus captured Babylon with the help of Darius the Mede, a “son of Astyages”, during the reign of Belshazzar, in the year 17 of Nabonidus (Jewish Antiquities X:247-249).
[iv] For a fuller evaluation of the understanding of Daniel 9:1-4, please see Part 6 of “A Journey of Discovery Through Time”. https://beroeans.net/2019/12/07/a-journey-of-discovery-through-time-part-6/
[v] A Journey of Discovery through Time – Part 1 https://beroeans.net/2019/06/12/a-journey-of-discovery-through-time-an-introduction-part-1/
[vi] https://www.academia.edu/22476645/Darius_the_Mede_A_Reappraisal by Stephen Anderson
[vii] https://www.academia.edu/2518052/Ugbaru_is_Darius_the_Mede by Gerard Gertoux
[ix] Jesus went up to Jerusalem for this festival from Galilee strongly suggesting it was a Passover. Evidence from the other Gospels indicates a considerable passage of time between the previous Passover and this time period because of the number of events recorded.
[x] See article “How can we prove when Jesus became King?” https://beroeans.net/2017/12/07/how-can-we-prove-when-jesus-became-king/
[xi] Please note that a change by a few years here will make little difference to the overall schema to be worked out, as most events are dated relative to one another and so most would change by the same amount. There is also usually a margin of error in dating anything this old due to the paucity and contradictory nature of most historical records.
[xii] There were famines at Rome in 41 (Seneca, de brev. vit. 18. 5; Aurelius Victor, de Caes. 4. 3), in 42 (Dio, LX, 11), and in 51 (Tacitus, Ann. XII, 43; Suet., Claudius 18. 2; Orosius, Hist. VII, 6. 17; A. Schoene, Eusebii chronicorum libri duo, Berlin, 1875, II, pp. 152 f.). There is no evidence for famine at Rome in 43 (cf. Dio, LX, 17.8), nor in 47 (cf. Tac, Ann. XI, 4), nor in 48 (cf. Dio, LX, 31. 4; Tac, Ann. XI, 26). There was a famine in Greece about 49 (A. Schoene, loc. cit.), a shortage of military supplies in Armenia in 51 (Tac, Ann. XII, 50), and speculation in grain at Cibyra (cf. M. Rostovtzeff, Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft im Römischen Kaiserreich, Berlin, 1929, note 20 to chapter VIII).
[xiii] https://www.academia.edu/ Academia.edu is a legitimate site widely used by Universities, Scholars and Researchers to publish papers. It is available as an Apple app. However, you will need to setup a login to download papers, but some can be read online without a login. You also do not need to pay anything. If you do not wish to do that, alternatively, feel free to please email a request to the author.