Ukuhlolwa kukaDaniel 11: 1-45 no 12: 1-13

Isingeniso

"Angiyesabi iqiniso. Ngiyakwamukela. Kepha ngifisa ukuthi wonke amaqiniso ami abe sesimweni sawo esifanele.”- UGordon B. Hinckley

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuqondisa kabusha isicaphuna sika-Alfred Whitehead,Ngihlupheke kakhulu ngabalobi abake bacaphuna lokhu noma leso sigwebo [imibhalo] kungaba ngaphandle komongo wayo noma ngokuqhathanisa nokuthile kokuthile okungalungile okuhlanekezelwe impela [yayo] nencazelo, noma wayicekela phansi ngokuphelele."

Ngakho-ke "Okwami ​​umongo uyisihluthulelo - kulokhu kuvela ukuqonda kwakho konke." -Kenneth Noland.

Lapho ehlola iBhayibheli ikakhulukazi noma yimuphi umbhalo ophathelene nesiprofetho, umuntu kufanele aqonde umongo ngokuqukethwe. Lokho kungahle kube ngamavesi ambalwa noma izahluko ezimbalwa noma yiluphi uhlangothi lwengxenye ehlolwayo. Kudingeka futhi sazi ukuthi ababukeli ababehlosiwe yayingobani nokuthi yini ababeyoyiqonda. Kufanele futhi sikhumbule ukuthi ibhayibheli lalibhalelwe abantu abajwayelekile, futhi baqondwe yilo. Akuzange kubhalelwe iqembu elithile elincane lezazi ezizoba ukuphela kwendlela yokubamba ulwazi nokuqonda, kungaba ngezikhathi zeBhayibheli noma zamanje noma ezizayo.

Ngakho-ke kubalulekile ukusondela ekuhlolweni ngokweqile, uvumele iBhayibheli ukuba lizitolika. Kufanele sivumele imibhalo ukuthi isiholele esiphethweni esingokwemvelo, kunokuba sisondele ngemibono esele ibonwe.

Okulandelayo imiphumela yokuhlolwa okunjalo kweBible Book kaDaniel 11, ngokwesimo ngaphandle kwemibono engakathelwanga, izama ukubona ukuthi singayiqonda kanjani. Noma imiphi imicimbi yomlando engaziwa kakhulu izonikezwa ngereferensi (ama) ukuqiniseka, yingakho ukuqonda okuphakanyisiwe.

Ukulandela lezi zimiso ezishiwo ngenhla sithola okulandelayo:

  • Okokuqala, izethameli kwakungamaJuda okungenzeka ukuthi ayesekudingisweni eBhabhulona noma ayesazobuyela ezweni lakwaJuda ngemuva kokuphila kwakhe konke.
  • Ngakho-ke, ngokwemvelo, izehlakalo ezirekhodiwe zaziyokwenzeka lezo zenzakalo ezifanele kakhulu esizweni samaJuda, ezazingabantu bakaNkulunkulu abakhethiweyo.
  • Lesi siprofetho sanikezwa ingelosi kuDaniel, umJuda, ngemuva nje kokuwa kweBabele kuDariyu umMede noKoresi wasePheresiya.
  • Njengokulindelekile, uDaniel namanye amaJuda babenentshisekelo ngekusasa lesizwe sabo, njengoba manje sekuphelile ukwenziwa kweBabiloni ngaphansi kukaNebukadinesari namadodana akhe.

Ngala maphuzu asemuva engqondweni ake siqale ivesi lethu ngokuhlola ivesi.

UDaniel 11: 1-2

"1 Kepha mina, ngonyaka wokuqala kaDariyu umMede ngasukuma ngaba ngumqinisi nanjengenqaba kuye. 2 Manje ngizokutshela iqiniso yini:

“Bheka! Kusazobusa amakhosi amathathu amaPheresiya, futhi owesine ayoqongelela ingcebo enkulu kunabo bonke abanye. Futhi lapho nje esenamandla emnothweni wakhe, uyovusa konke ukumelana nombuso waseGrisi.

IJudiya libuswa yiPheresiya

Njengesikhumbuzo, ngokusho kweveseli 1, ingelosi ikhuluma noDaniel manje ngaphansi kokubusa kukaDariyu umMede noKoresi inkosi yasePheresiya, ngonyaka wokuqala emva kokunqotshwa kwabo yiBabiloni nombuso wayo.

Ngakho-ke, ubani okufanele akhonjwe namakhosi ama-4 asePheresiya ashiwo lapha?

Abanye bakhombe uKoresi Omkhulu njengeNkosi yokuqala futhi bamshaya indiva uBardiya / Gaumata / Smerdis. Kepha kufanele sikhumbule umongo.

Kungani sisho lokhu? UDaniel 11: 1 unikeza isikhathi salesi siprofetho njengoba senzeka ku-1st unyaka kaDariyu umMede. Kepha kubalulekile ukuthi uqaphele ukuthi ngokusho kukaDaniel 5: 31 noDaniel 9: 1, uDariyu umMede wayeyinkosi yaseBabiloni nokuthi yini eseleyo yoMbuso WaseBabiloni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uDaniel 6: 28 ukhuluma ngoDaniel ochuma embusweni kaDariyu [eBhabheli] nasembusweni kaKoresi wasePheresiya.

UKoresi wayesesebuse njengeNkosi phezu kwePheresiya iminyaka engaba ngu-22[i] ngaphambi kokubanjwa kweBabiloni futhi yaqhubeka iyinkosi yasePheresiya yaze yafa eminyakeni eyi-9 kamuva. Ngakho-ke, lapho umbhalo uthi,

"Bheka! kusazobe kunamakhosi amathathu ”,

futhi ikhuluma ngekusasa, singaphetha ngokuthi Olandelayo Inkosi yasePheresiya, kanye ne inkosi yokuqala yasePheresiya yalesi siprofetho, ukuthatha isihlalo sobukhosi sasePheresiya kwakunguCambyses II, indodana kaKoresi Omkhulu.

Lokhu kungasho ukuthi inkosi yesibili yesiprofetho kuzoba uBardiya / Gaumata / Smerdis njengoba le nkosi iphumelele eCambyses II. UBardiya yena, walawulwa nguDariyu Omkhulu thina, ngenxa yalokho, esimveza njengenkosi yethu yesithathu.[Ii]

Ukuthi uBardiya / Gaumata / Smerdis wayengumkhohlisi noma engabalulekile kangako, futhi empeleni, kuncane okwaziwayo ngaye. Kukhona nokungaqiniseki ngegama lakhe langempela yingakho igama kathathu elinikezwe lapha.

UDariyu Omkhulu, inkosi yesithathu yalawulwa nguXerxes I (the Great), owayezoba yinkosi yesine.

Isiprofetho sithi okulandelayo ngenkosi yesine:

"owesine uyoqongelela ingcebo enkulu kunabo bonke abanye. Futhi lapho nje esenamandla emnothweni wakhe, uyovusa konke ukumelana nombuso waseGrisi ”

Umlando utshengisani? Inkosi yesine ngokusobala kwakufanele ibe yiXerxes. Nguyena kuphela inkosi efanelekayo le ncazelo. Uyise uDarius I (Omkhulu) wayeqongelele ingcebo ngokungenisa uhlelo lwentela ejwayelekile. UXerxes wakuthola njengefa lokhu futhi wengeza kukho. NgokukaHerodotus, uXerxes waqoqa ibutho elikhulu nemikhumbi eyayihlasela eGrisi. "UXerxes wayeqoqana ibutho lakhe ndawonye, ​​efuna zonke izifunda zezwekazi. 20. Eminyakeni emine egcwele kusukela ekunqobeni kweGibhithe wayelungiselela amabutho nezinto ezazisebenzela impi, kwathi ngonyaka wesihlanu waqala umkhankaso wakhe nesixuku esikhulu. Kuwo wonke amabutho esiwaziyo lokhu kuye kwaba okukhulu kakhulu; (Bheka uHerodotus, iNcwadi 7, izigaba 20,60-97).[Iii]

Ngaphezu kwalokho, uXerxes ngokomlando owaziwayo wayeyinkosi yokugcina yasePheresiya ukuhlasela iGrisi ngaphambi kokuhlasela kwePheresiya ngu-Alexander the Great.

Nge-Xerxes ekhonjwe ngokusobala njenge-4th Inkosi, khona-ke lokhu kufakazela ukuthi uyise, uDariyo Omkhulu kwakumelwe abe ngu-3rd inkosi nokunye ukuhlonza kweCambyses II njengo-1st inkosi no Bardiya njengo-2nd nkosi ngiqinisile.

Kafushane nje, amakhosi amane ayezolandela uDariyu umMede noKoresi Omkhulu

  • UCambyses II, (indodana kaKoresi)
  • UBardiya / Gaumata / Smerdis, (? Umfowethu waseCambyses, noma oyisigqila?)
  • UDariyu I (Omkhulu), no
  • UXerxes (indodana kaDariyu I)

Amakhosi asele wePheresiya akenzanga lutho oluthinta isimo sezwe lamaJuda nezwe lakwaJuda.

UDaniel 11: 3-4

3 “Inkosi enamandla ngokuqinisekile iyosukuma ibuse ngokubusa okukhulu futhi yenze ngokwentando yayo. 4 Lapho esemi, umbuso wakhe uyophulwa, wahlukaniswe imimoya yomine yamazulu, kepha kungabi ngezizukulwane zakhe, kungabi ngokwesikhundla sakhe ebuse ngaso. ngoba umbuso wakhe uzosuswa, ngisho nakwabanye kunalawa.

"3Inkosi enamandla ngokuqinisekile iyokuma ”

Inkosi elandelayo ethinta izwe lakwaJuda namaJuda kwakungu-Alexander the Great kanye nama-Empires amane aphumela kuwo. Akunankinga ngisho nengxabano engenangqondo enkulu ngokuqonda kwala mavesi njengokubhekisa ku-Alexander the Great. Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi esinye sezizathu u-Alexander ahlasela iPheresiya, yingoba ngokusho kuka-Arrian waseNicomedian (ekuqaleni kuka-2nd Century), "Au-lexander wabhala impendulo, wathumela uTherippus namadoda ayevela eDariyu, nemiyalo yokuthi ayinike uDariyu le ncwadi, kodwa angaxoxi ngalutho. Ngaleyo ndlela incwadi ka-Alexander yasebenza: “Okhokho bakho beza eMakedoniya nakwamanye amazwe aseGrisi, basiphatha gadalala, ngaphandle kokulimala kwethu. Mina, lapho sengibekwe ukuba ngumkhuzi-omkhulu-wamaGrikhi, futhi sengifisa ukuziphindiselela kumaPheresiya, ngawelela e-Asiya, ubutha buqala ngawe. .... " [Iv]. Ngakho-ke, nathi sinokuxhumana phakathi kweNkosi yesine yasePheresiya no-Alexander the Great.

"Futhi ubuse ngokubusa okukhulu futhi wenze ngokwentando yakhe"

U-Alexander the Great wasukuma waqopha umbuso omkhulu ngeminyaka eyishumi, osuka eGrisi waya enyakatho nentshonalanga neNdiya wahlanganisa namazwe oMbuso WasePheresiya owahlulwa, owawuhlanganisa iGibhithe neJudiya.

IJudiya libuswa yiGrisi

“Lapho eseyobe esukuma, umbuso wakhe uyophulwa”

Kodwa-ke, ekunqobeni kokunqoba kwakhe, u-Alexander wafela eBhabheli ngemuva nje kokuqeda umkhankaso wakhe ngemuva kweminyaka eyi-11 eqale ukuhlasela kwakhe uMbuso WasePheresiya, futhi kwaba yiminyaka eyi-13 kuphela ngemuva kokuba yinkosi yaseGrisi.

“Umbuso wakhe uyophulwa, uhlukaniswe ubhekiswe emimoyeni yomine yamazulu” futhi "umbuso wakhe uzosuswa, yebo, ngaphandle kwalabanye ”

Ngemuva kwenkathi yeminyaka ecishe ibe ngamashumi amabili yokuhlasela, umbuso wakhe wahlukaniselwa imibuso emi-4 ebuswa yi-4 Generals. Eyodwa entshonalanga, iCassander, eMakedoniya naseGrisi. Eyodwa iye enyakatho, iLysimachus, e-Asia Minor naseThrace, enye iye empumalanga, uSeleucus Nicator eMesopotamia naseSyria bese enye iseningizimu, uPtolemy Soter eGibhithe nasePalestine.

"Kodwa hhayi ngezizukulwane zakhe hhayi ngokobukhosi bakhe ayebuse nabo"

Izizukulwane zakhe, inzalo yakhe, esemthethweni nengokwasemthethweni bonke bafa noma babulawa ngesikhathi sokulwa. Ngakho-ke, akukho lutho lombuso uAlexander awakhile lwaya emndenini wakhe noma ezizalweni zakhe.

Futhi umbuso wakhe awuphumelelanga ekuphumeleleni ngendlela abefuna ngayo. Wayefuna umbuso wobumbano, esikhundleni salokho, manje wawusehlukaniswe waba amaqembu amane alwayo.

Kuyiqiniso elijabulisayo ukuthi amaqiniso ngokwenzeka ku-Alexander nombuso wakhe achazwe ngokunembe nangokucacile kula mavesi kuDaniel 11, ukuthi ngokunengqondo asetshenziswa abanye ukusho ukuthi wawungumlando owabhalwa ngemuva kweqiniso kunokuthi ubhalwe ngaphambili!

Ngokokulandisa kukaJosephus kodwa, iNcwadi kaDaniel bekufanele ukuthi ibhalwe ngesikhathi sika-Alexander the Great. Ekhuluma ngo-Alexander, uJosephus wabhala "Kwathi lapho kutshelwa iNcwadi kaDaniel lapho uDaniel ememezela ukuthi omunye wamaGrisi kufanele abhubhise umbuso wamaPheresiya, wacabanga ukuthi nguyena uqobo ohlosile. ” [V]

Lokhu kuhlukana kwabikezelwa futhi kuDaniel 7: 6 [vi] nengwe inamakhanda amane, nezimpondo ezi-4 ezivelele embuzini kaDaniel 8: 8.[vii]

Inkosi enamandla ngu-Alexander the Great waseGrisi.

Imibuso emine ebuswa ngamaJenerals amane.

  • UCassander uthathe iMacedonia neGrisi.
  • ILysimachus yathatha i-Asia Minor kanye neTrace,
  • USeleucus Nicator uthathe iMesopotamia neSyria,
  • UPtolemy Soter uthathe iGibhithe nePalestine.

IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yaseningizimu.

UDaniel 11: 5

5 “Inkosi yaseningizimu iyoba namandla, yebo esisodwa sezikhulu zayo; futhi uyomnqoba futhi ngokuqinisekile uyobusa ngokubusa okukhulu [okukhulu kunamandla] okubusa kwalowo.

Kungakapheli iminyaka eyi-25 kusungulwe uMbuso omine, izinto zase zishintshile.

“Inkosi yaseningizimu iyoqina”

Ekuqaleni inkosi yaseNingizimu, uPtolemy eGibhithe wayenamandla amakhulu.[viii]

“Kanye nesinye sezikhulu zakhe”

USeleucus wayengumphathi kaPtolemy [inkosana], owaba namandla. Wazenzela ingxenye yoMbuso WamaGrikhi uSeleucia, Syria kanye neMesopotamia. Akubanga isikhathi eside yize ngaphambi kokuba uSeleucus abuye amunce eminye imibuso emibili kaCassander neLysimachus.

"Futhi uzomhlula futhi ngokuqinisekile uyobusa ngokubusa okukhulu [okukhulu kunamandla] akhe okubusa".

Kodwa-ke, uPtolemy wahlula uSeleucus futhi wakufakazela ukuthi unamandla ngokwengeziwe, kwathi ekugcineni uSeleucus washona esandleni sendodana yamunye kaPtolemy.

Lokhu kunikeze iKosi enamandla yaseningizimu njengoPtolemy 1 Soter, kanye neNkosi yasenyakatho njengoSeleucus I Nicator.

Inkosi Yaseningizimu: UPtolemy I

Inkosi Yasenyakatho: USeleucus I

IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yaseningizimu

UDaniel 11: 6

6 “Ekupheleni kweminyaka ethile bayohlangana ndawonye, ​​futhi yona ndodakazi yenkosi yaseningizimu iyoza enkosini yasenyakatho ukuze ilungiselele ngendlela elinganayo. Kepha akayukugcina amandla engalo yakhe; futhi ngeke ame, nengalo yakhe; uzokunikelwa, yena kanye nalabo abamletha, nalowo owamzalelayo, nalowo omenza aqine ngalezo zikhathi. ”

"6Ekupheleni kweminyaka ethile bayohlangana ndawonye, ​​futhi yona ndodakazi yenkosi yaseningizimu iyoza enkosini yasenyakatho ukuze ilungiselele ngendlela elinganayo. ”

Ngemuva kweminyaka ethile ngokwenzeka kuDaniel 11: 5, uPtolemy II Philadelphus (indodana kaPtolemy I) wanikezandodakazi yenkosi yaseningizimu ” UBerenice, ku-Antiochus II Theos, umzukulu kaSeleucus njengomfazi “ilungiselelo elilinganayo. ” Lokhu kwenzeka ngesizathu sokuthi u-Antiochus akhiphe unkosikazi wakhe uLaodice owayekhonabazibumbane ”. [ix]

Inkosi Yaseningizimu: UPtolemy II

Inkosi Yasenyakatho: U-Antiochus II

IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yaseningizimu

"Kepha ngeke aqhubeke namandla engalo yakhe;"

Kepha indodakazi kaPtolemy II, uBerenice wenze “ungagcini amandla engalo yakhe ”, isikhundla sakhe njengeNdlovukazi.

"Futhi ngeke ame, nengalo yakhe;"

Ubaba wakhe washona kungekudala ngemuva kokushiya iBerenice ngaphandle kokuvikelwa.

“Uzokunikelwa, yena kanye nalabo abamletha, nalowo owamzalelayo, nalowo omenza aqine ngalezo zikhathi [

U-Antiochus wadela uBerenice njengomkakhe wabuyisela unkosikazi wakhe uLaodice, washiya uBerenice engavikelekile.

Ngenxa yale micimbi, uLaodice wabulala u-Antiochus kwathi uBerenice wanikezwa uLaodice owambulalayo. ULaodice wenza indodana yakhe uSeleucus II Callinicus, inkosi yaseSeleucia.

UDaniel 11: 7-9

7 Ngokuqinisekile umuntu ovela empandeni yezimpande zakhe uyosukuma esikhundleni sakhe, futhi uyoza ebuthweni lempi futhi alwe nenqaba yenkosi yasenyakatho futhi ngokuqinisekile uzolwa nabo anqobe. 8 Futhi uzoza eGibhithe kanye nonkulunkulu babo, nezithombe zabo ezincibilikisiwe, nezinto zabo ezifiselekayo zesiliva nezegolide, kanye nabathunjwa. Futhi iyohlala iminyaka ethile nenkosi yasenyakatho. 9 “Uyongena embusweni wenkosi yaseningizimu abuyele emhlabathini wakhe.”

Ivesi 7

“Ngokuqinisekile kusuka ohlumeni lwezimpande zakhe kusukume esikhundleni sakhe,”

Lokhu kusho umfowethu kaBerenice owabulawa, owayenguPtolemy III Euergetes. UPtolemy III wayeyindodana yabazali bakhe, "Izimpande zakhe".

"Uzoza embuthweni wamasosha alwe nenqaba yenkosi yasenyakatho futhi ngokuqinisekile uzolwa nabo futhi anqobe"

UPtolemy III “usukume ” esikhundleni sikayise futhi wahlasela iSyria “inqaba yenkosi yasenyakatho ” futhi yahlula uSeleucus II, inkosi yaseNyakatho. "[X]

Inkosi Yaseningizimu: UPtolemy III

Inkosi Yasenyakatho: USeleucus II

IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yaseningizimu

Ivesi 8

“Futhi uzonikela no-Gibhithe kanye nonkulunkulu babo, nezithombe zabo ezincibilikisiwe, nezinto zabo ezifiselekayo zesiliva nezegolide, kanye nezithunjwa"

UPtolemy III ubuyela eGibhithe kanye nezimpango eziningi uCambyses azisusa eGibhithe eminyakeni eminingi edlule. [xi]

“Futhi uyomela inkosi ethile yasenyakatho iminyaka ethile.”

Ngemuva kwalokhu, kwaba nokuthula ngesikhathi uPtolemy III akha ithempeli elikhulu e-Edfu.

Ivesi 9

9 “Uyongena embusweni wenkosi yaseningizimu abuyele emhlabathini wakhe.”

Ngemuva kwenkathi yokuthula, uSeleucus II Callinicus wazama ukuhlasela iGibhithe ngokuziphindisela kodwa wangaphumelela futhi kwadingeka abuyele eSeleucia.[xii]

UDaniel 11: 10-12

10 “Manje amadodana akhe, ayozijabulisa futhi empeleni abuthe isixuku samabutho amakhulu empi. Futhi ngokuza ngokuqinisekile uzofika azikhukhumeze adlule. Kepha uzobuyela emuva, azijabulise ngayo yonke indlela eya enqabeni yakhe. 11 “Inkosi yaseningizimu iyoziqhenya futhi iyophuma ilwe naye, okungukuthi, nenkosi yasenyakatho; ngokuqinisekile uyoba nesixuku esikhulu sisukume, empeleni isixuku siyonikelwa esandleni salowo. 12 Futhi isixuku ngokuqinisekile siyothathwa. Inhliziyo yakhe iyophakama, futhi empeleni uyobangela amashumi ezinkulungwane ukuba awe; kodwa ngeke asisebenzise isikhundla sakhe esinamandla. ”

Inkosi Yaseningizimu: Ptolemy IV

Inkosi Yasenyakatho: USeleucus III wabe u-Antiochus III

IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yaseningizimu

"10Manje amadodana akhe, ayozijabulisa futhi empeleni abuthe isixuku samabutho amakhulu empi ”

USeleucus II wayenamadodana amabili, uSeleucus III nomfowabo omncane u-Antiochus III. USeleucus III wazijabulisa futhi wakhulisa amabutho ukuba azame ukubuyisa izingxenye ze-Asia Minor ezalahlwa nguyise ngempumelelo ehlanganayo. Wadliswa ubuthi ngonyaka wesibili wokubusa kwakhe. Umfowabo u-Antiochus III wangena esikhundleni sakhe futhi waba nempumelelo engaphezulu e-Asia Minor.

“Futhi ngokuza ngokuqinisekile uzofika azikhukhumeze adlule. Kepha uzobuyela emuva, azijabulise ngayo yonke indlela eya enqabeni yakhe. ”

U-Antiochus III wabe esehlasela uPtolemy IV Philopator (inkosi yaseningizimu) futhi waphinde wabamba kabusha itheku lase-Antiyokiya walibangisa eningizimu ukuyothumba iTire "Ukukhukhula kudlule futhi kudlule" insimu yeNkosi yaseningizimu. Ngemuva kokudlula kwaJuda, u-Antiochus wafika emngceleni waseGibhithe eRaphia lapho ehlulwa khona nguPtolemy IV. U-Antiochus wabe esebuyela ekhaya, egcina itheku lase-Antiyokiya ekuzuzeni kwakhe kokuqala.

"11Inkosi yaseningizimu iyoziqhenya futhi iyophuma ilwe naye, okungukuthi, nenkosi yasenyakatho; ngokuqinisekile uyoba nesixuku esikhulu sisukume, empeleni isixuku siyonikelwa esandleni salowo.

Lokhu kuqinisekisa leyo micimbi ngemininingwane eminingi. UPtolemy IV uthukuthele futhi uphuma namabutho amaningi kanti nenkosi yamasosha amaningi ihlatshwa (abangaba ngu-10,000) noma bathunjwe (4,000) "unikelwe esandleni salowo ” (inkosi yaseningizimu).

"12 Futhi isixuku ngokuqinisekile siyothathwa. Inhliziyo yakhe iyophakama, futhi empeleni uyobangela amashumi ezinkulungwane ukuba awe; kodwa ngeke asisebenzise isikhundla sakhe esinamandla. ”

UPtolemy IV njengenkosi yaseningizimu wanqoba, noma kunjalo, wehluleka ukusebenzisa isikhundla sakhe esinamandla, esikhundleni salokho, wenza ukuthula no-Antiochus III inkosi yasenyakatho.

UDaniel 11: 13-19

13 “Inkosi yasenyakatho iyobuya iqoqe isixuku esikhulu kunesokuqala; futhi ekupheleni kwezikhathi, iminyaka ethile, izofika, ikwenza ngebutho elikhulu lempi nangezimpahla eziningi. ”

Inkosi Yaseningizimu: Ptolemy IV, Ptolemy V

Inkosi Yasenyakatho: U-Antiochus III

IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yaseningizimu

Eminyakeni engaba ngu-15 kamuva inkosi yaseNyakatho, u-Antiochus III, wabuya nelinye ibutho wahlasela omncane UPtolemy V Epiphanes, inkosi entsha yaseningizimu.

14 “Ngalezo zikhathi bayoba baningi abazomelana nenkosi yaseningizimu.”

Ngalezo zikhathi uPhilip V waseMakedoniya wavuma ukuhlasela uPtolemy IV, oshone ngaphambi kwalokhu kuhlaselwa.

“Amadodana abaphangi abantu bakini, ayoqhutshwa ukuzama ukwenza umbono ugcwaliseke; futhi kuyofanele bakhubeke. ”

Ngenkathi u-Antiochus III edlula kwaJuda eyohlasela uPtolemy V, amaJuda amaningi, athengisa izinto zika-Antiochus futhi kamuva amsiza ekuhlaseleni ikamu lamabutho laseGibhithe eJerusalema. Inhloso yalawa maJuda “yaqhutshwa ukuzama ukwenza umbono ugcwaliseke” okwakuwukuthola inkululeko, kepha bahluleka kulokhu. U-Antiochus III wabaphatha kahle kodwa akazange abanike konke ababekufuna.[xiii]

15 “Inkosi yasenyakatho izofika ibambe umngcele wokuvinjezelwa futhi empeleni ibambe idolobha elinezinqaba. Kepha izingalo zaseningizimu, ngeke zime, nabantu babakhethiweyo bakhe; futhi ngeke ube khona amandla okuma. ”

U-Antiochus III (the Great), inkosi yasenyakatho, wavimbezela futhi wathumba iSidon cishe ngo-200 BC, lapho uPtolemy's (V) Scopas jikelele wayebaleke khona ngemuva kokwehlulwa kwakhe eMfuleni iJordani. UPtolemy uthumela amabutho akhe aphambili nojenene ukuzama ukukhulula iScopas, kepha nabo bahlulwa, "Ngeke ube khona amandla okuma ume".[xiv]

16 “Lowo oza emelana naye uzokwenza ngokwentando yakhe, futhi ngeke kube namuntu phambi kwakhe. Uyokuma ezweni lomhlobiso, abe nokuqothula esandleni sakhe. ”

Njengoba kushiwo ngenhla cishe ngo-200-199 BC u-Antiochus III wayethathe i "Umhlaba Wokuhlobisa", kungabikho ophumelelayo ekumphikiseni ngempumelelo. Izingxenye zaseJudiya, zaziyizikhumbuzo zezimpi eziningi neNkosi yaseningizimu, futhi ngenxa yalokho zathola ukulimala nokuchithwa ngenxa yalokho.[xv] U-Antiochus III wamukela igama elithi “Inkosi Enkulu” njengo-Alexander ngaphambi kwakhe futhi amaGrikhi ambiza ngegama lokuthi “oMkhulu”.

IJudiya iba ngaphansi kokubusa kwenkosi yasenyakatho

17 “Uyobhekisa ubuso bakhe ukuthi bufike ngamandla ombuso wakhe wonke, kube khona amazwi alinganayo naye; futhi uzosebenza ngempumelelo. Ngokuqondene nendodakazi yesintu, iyobanikwa ukuba bayonakalise. Ngeke ime, futhi ngeke iqhubeke nokuba ngeyakhe. ”

U-Antiochus III wabe esefuna ukuthula neGibhithe ngokunikela ngendodakazi yakhe kuPtolemy V Epiphanes, kepha lokhu kwehluleka ukuletha umfelandawonye wokuthula.[xvi] Eqinisweni uCleopatra, indodakazi yakhe yahlala noPtolemy esikhundleni sikayise u-Antiochus III. "Ngeke aqhubeke abe wakhe".

18 “Futhi uzophendulela ubuso bakhe ezigangeni ezisogwini empeleni abambe abaningi”.

Izindawo ezingasogwini kuyaqondakala ukuthi zibhekisa ogwini lwaseTurkey (Asia Minor). IGrisi ne-Italy (iRoma). Cishe ngonyaka we-199/8-192 u-Antiochus wahlasela iCilicia (South East Turkey) kwathi emva kwalokho iLycia (South West Turkey). Ngemuva kwalokho uTrace (Greece) walandela ngemuva kweminyaka embalwa. Wathatha neziqhingi eziningi ze-Aegean ngalesi sikhathi. Kwathi phakathi kweminyaka ecishe ibe ngu-188-XNUMX wahlasela iRoma, kanye nabalingani bayo basePergamo neRhodos.

“Umphathi kuyodingeka enze isihlamba esivela kuye siphele, ukuze ihlazo lakhe lingabikho. Uyokwenza ibuyisele emuva leyo. 19 Uyophendulela ubuso bakhe ezinqabeni zezwe lakhe, akhubeke awele, angatholakali. ”

Lokhu kwagcwaliseka njengomphathi-jikelele wamaRoma uLucius Scipio Asiaticus "umphathi" wasusa ihlazo kuye ngokunqoba u-Antiochus III eMagnesia cishe ngo-190 BC. Lapho-ke induna yamaRoma yaphenduka "ubuso bayo babuyela ezinqabeni zezwe layo", ngokuhlasela abaseRoma. Kodwa-ke, wahlulwa ngokushesha yiScipio Africanus futhi wabulawa ngabantu bakubo.

UDaniel 11: 20

20 “Esikhundleni sakhe kuyovela umuntu obangela umqoqi wamatshe adlule embusweni omuhle, futhi uyophulwa ngezinsuku ezimbalwa, kodwa hhayi ngolaka noma empini.

Ngemuva kokubusa isikhathi eside u-Antiochus III washona futhi "Esikhundleni sakhe", indodana yakhe uSeleucus IV Philopater wasukuma esikhundleni sakhe.

Ukuze akhokhe icala laseRoma, uSeleucus IV wayala umphathi wakhe uHeliodorus ukuthi athole imali ethempelini laseJerusalema, “Umdwelisi ukuze adlule embusweni omuhle” (bona ama-2 Maccabees 3: 1-40).

USeleucus IV wabusa iminyaka eyi-12 kuphela “Izinsuku ezimbalwa” qhathanisa nokubusa kukababa wakhe kweminyaka engama-37. UHeliodorus wamfaka ubuthi uSeleucus owafa "Hhayi ngentukuthelo noma empini".

Inkosi Yasenyakatho: USeleucus IV

IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yasenyakatho

UDaniel 11: 21-35

21 “Esikhundleni sakhe kuyovela umuntu ozodelelwa, futhi ngokuqinisekile ngeke abeke isithunzi sombuso phezu kwakhe; futhi empeleni uzongena ngesikhathi sokukhululeka ekunakekelweni awuphathe umbuso ngokubushelelezi. ”

Inkosi elandelayo yasenyakatho yabizwa ngokuthi u-Antiochus IV Epiphanes. 1 AmaMaccabees 1:10 (iGood News Translation) iyayixoxa lendaba “Umbusi omubi u-Antiochus Epiphanes, indodana yeNkosi u-Antiochus wesithathu waseSyria, wayengowesinye sezinduna zika-Alexander. U-Antiochus Epiphanes ubethunjiwe eRoma ngaphambi kokuba abe yinkosi yaseSyria… ” . Wathatha igama elithi “Epiphanes” elisho ukuthi “okhanyayo” kodwa waqanjwa igama elithi “Epimanes” elisho ukuthi “uhlanya”. Isihlalo sobukhosi kufanele ngabe siye kuDemetrius Soter, indodana kaSeleucus IV, kodwa esikhundleni salokho u-Antiochus IV wabamba ubukhosi. Wayengumfowabo kaSeleucus IV. “Ngokuqinisekile ngeke babeke kuye isithunzi sombuso”, esikhundleni salokho watusa inkosi yasePergamo wabe esethatha ubukhosi ngosizo lweNkosi yasePergamo.[xvii]

"22 Ngokuqondene nezingalo zesikhukhula, ziyogcwala ngenxa yakhe, ziyophulwa; kanjalo noMholi wesivumelwano. ”

UPtolemy VI Philometer, inkosi entsha yaseningizimu, wabe esehlasela uMbuso WaseSeleucid nenkosi entsha yasenyakatho ye-Antiochus IV Epiphanes, kodwa ibutho lezikhukhula liyaxoshwa futhi liphulwe.

U-Antiochus wabuye wadedela u-Onias III, umpristi ophakeme wamaJuda, okungenzeka kuthiwa nguyena “Umholi wesivumelwano”.

Inkosi Yaseningizimu: Ptolemy VI

Inkosi Yasenyakatho: U-Antiochus IV

IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yaseningizimu

"23 Futhi ngenxa yokuzihlanganisa naye uzokwengeza inkohliso aqhamuke abe namandla ngesizwe esincane. ”

UJosephus ulandisa ukuthi ngaleso sikhathi kwaJuda kwakukhona umzabalazo wamandla u-Onias [III] umPristi Ophakeme wanqoba ngaleso sikhathi. Kepha iqembu, amadodana kaTobias,isizwe esincane ”, bazihlanganisa no-Antiochus. [xviii]

UJosephus uqhubeka nokuthi “Kwathi emva kweminyaka emibili, inkosi yakhuphukela eJerusalema, enza ukuthula, wangenelwa ngumuzi ngenkohliso; ngasiphi isikhathi akazange asinde kangako kunaleso esasimfaka kuye, ngenxa yengcebo eyayibekwe ethempelini ”[xix]. Yebo, waqala inkohliso, wanqoba iJerusalema ngenxa ye “Isizwe esincane” kumaJuda akhohlisayo.

"24 Ngesikhathi sokukhululeka ekunakekelweni, ngisho nasekufutheni isifunda sombuso uyongena futhi empeleni enze lokho obaba noyise babayise abangazange bakwenze. Uyophanga phakathi kwabo impango nempango nezimpahla phakathi kwabo; futhi uzokwakha amacebo akhe ezindaweni ezibiyelwe, kodwa kuze kube yisikhathi esithile. ”

UJosephus uthi futhi “; kepha, eqondiswa yisifiso sakhe sokuhaha, (ngoba wabona kukhona kulo igolide eliningi kakhulu, nemihlobiso eminingi eyayinikezelwe kuyo yenani elikhulu kakhulu,) futhi ukuze aphange umcebo wayo, wazama ukwephula iligi ayekwenzile. Ngakho-ke washiya ithempeli lingenalutho, futhi wasusa amakhandlela egolide, ne-altare legolide [lempepho], netafula [lesinkwa sokubukwa], ne-altare [lomnikelo wokushiswa]; futhi akazange agweme ngisho naseveli, eyayenziwe ngelineni elicolekileyo nelibomvu. Wabuye wayichitha engcebweni yayo eyimfihlo, futhi akazange ashiye lutho; Ngale ndlela baphonsa amaJuda isililo esikhulu, ngoba wayebenqabela ukuba banikele leyo mihlatshelo yansuku zonke ababeyinikela kuNkulunkulu, ngokomthetho. ” [xx]

Ngaphandle kokunakekela imiphumela u-Antiochus IV wayala ukuba kuthunyelwe ithempeli lamaJuda amagugu alo. Lokhu bekuyinto “okhokho bakhe noyise babayise abenzanga ”, naphezu kokuthumba iJerusalema ngamakhosi amaningi aseningizimu ezikhathini ezedlule. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ekwenqabeleni imihlatshelo yansuku zonke ethempelini wadlulela ngalé kwalokho enziwe ngabakwenzile.

25 “Uzovusela amandla nenhliziyo yakhe kuyo inkosi yaseningizimu ngebutho elikhulu lempi; Inkosi yaseningizimu, iyakuzijabulisa yona impi ngebutho elikhulu kakhulu nelinamandla empi. Futhi ngeke ame, ngoba ayohlela amacebo ngaye. 26 Bona kanye abadla izibiliboco zakhe bayokuletha ukuwohloka kwakhe. ”

Njengoba esebuyele ekhaya wahlela izindaba zombuso wakhe, ama-2 Maccabees 5: 1 aqopha ukuthi u-Antiochus wabe eseqhubeka nokuhlasela okwesibili eGibhithe, inkosi yaseningizimu.[xxi] Amabutho ka-Antiochus agasele eGibhithe.

“Kepha ibutho lakhe lempi, lizokhukhulwa,

EPelusium, eGibhithe, amabutho kaPtolemy aqhuma phambi kuka-Antiochus.

futhi ngokuqinisekile abaningi bayokuwa bebulewe.

Kodwa-ke, lapho u-Antiochus ezwa imibiko yokulwa eJerusalema, wacabanga ukuthi iJudiya lase livukela umbuso (2 Maccabees 5: 5-6, 11). Ngakho-ke, wasuka eGibhithe wabuyela eJudiya, wabulala amaJuda amaningi njengoba ayefika futhi aphange ithempeli. (2 Ama-Maccabees 5: 11-14).

Kwakuwukuhlatshwa okuvela lapho "UJudas Maccabeus, nabanye abayisishiyagalolunye, baya ehlane" okwaqala ukuvukela kwamaMaccabees (2 Maccabees 5:27).

27 “Ngokuqondene nalawo makhosi amabili, inhliziyo yawo iyothambekela ekwenzeni okubi, futhi ayoqhubeka akhulume amanga etafuleni elilodwa. Kepha akukho okuyophumelela kukho, ngokuba ukuphela kusesikhathi esimisiwe.

Lokhu kubonakala kubhekisa esivumelwaneni phakathi kuka-Antiochus IV noPtolemy VI, ngemuva kokuthi uPtolemy VI ahlulwe eMemphis engxenyeni yokuqala yempi phakathi kwabo. U-Antiochus uzimele njengomvikeli wePtolemy VI osemncane ngokumelene noCleopatra II noPtolemy VIII futhi unethemba lokuthi bazoqhubeka nokulwa bodwa. Kodwa-ke, ama-Ptolemies amabili enza ukuthula ngakho-ke u-Antiochus ulanda ukuhlasela kwesibili njengoba kubhalwe ku-2 Maccabees 5: 1. Bheka uDaniel 11:25 ngaphezulu. Kulesi sivumelwano womabili la makhosi ayengabili, ngakho-ke akuphumelelanga, ngoba ukuphela kokulwa phakathi kwenkosi yaseningizimu nenkosi yasenyakatho kungokwesikhathi esizayo, "Ukuphela kungokwesikhathi esimisiwe".[xxii]

28 “Futhi uzobuyela ezweni lakhe nenqwaba yempahla, inhliziyo yakhe imelene nesivumelwano esingcwele. Futhi uzosebenza ngempumelelo futhi ngokuqinisekile abuyele ezweni lakhe.

Lokhu kubonakala kufingqa izehlakalo ezichazwe ngemininingwane eminingi emavesini alandelayo, 30b, no-31-35.

29 “Ngesikhathi esimisiwe uyobuyela emuva, futhi empeleni uzofika ahlasele iningizimu; kodwa ngeke kube njengasekuqaleni njengasekuqaleni. 30 Ngokuqinisekile kuyofika kuye ngokuqondile imikhumbi yaseKitimi, futhi ngokudangala iyodangala.

Lokhu kubonakala sengathi kuxoxa ngokuqhubeka nokuhlasela kwesibili kuka-Antiochus IV, inkosi yasenyakatho elwa noPtolemy VI, inkosi yaseningizimu. Ngenkathi aphumelela ukumelana noPtolemy, efika e-Alexandria kulokhu, amaRoma, “Imikhumbi yaseKitimi”, wafika wamcindezela ukuthi athathe umhlalaphansi e-Alexandria eGibhithe.

"Ukusuka esigungwini sabeRoma, uPopillius Laenas uthathe ku-Antiochus incwadi emenqabela ukuthi alwe neGibhithe. Lapho u-Antiochus ecela isikhathi sokucabangisisa, le nxusa lidonsele umbuthano esihlabathini elizungeze u-Antiochus futhi lamcela ukuba aphendule ngaphambi kokuba aphume ayisiyingi. U-Antiochus wafaka izimfuno zaseRoma zokumelana kuzobe kusho ukuthi wayolwa neRoma. ” [xxiii]

"I-30bFuthi empeleni iyobuyela emuva ikhiphe isahlulelo esiphikisana nesivumelwano esingcwele futhi yenze ngokuphumelelayo; futhi kuzofanela abuyele emuva futhi azobanaka labo abashiya isivumelwano esingcwele. 31 Futhi kuzoba nezingalo eziyokuma, zivela kuye; futhi empeleni bayongcolisa indlu engcwele, inqaba, basuse okuqhubekayo

  • .

    “Futhi bayobeka into enengekayo eyenza incithakalo.”

    UJosephus ulandisa lokhu okulandelayo encwadini yakhe ethi The Wars of the Jewish, Book I, Isahluko 1, isigaba 2,Manje u-Antiochus wayengagculisekile ngokuthatha kwakhe umuzi ngokungalindelekile, noma ngokupangwa kwawo, noma ngokubulawa okukhulu ayekwenzile lapho; Kepha ehlulekile izinkanuko zakhe ezinobudlova, futhi ekhumbula lokho ayekuhlupheke ngesikhathi sokuvinjezelwa, waphoqa amaJuda ukuthi achithe imithetho yezwe labo, nokuthi izingane zabo zingasokwa, futhi anikele ngenyama yezilwane ezingulubeni. ” UJosephus, izimpi zamaJuda, iNcwadi I, Isahluko 1, isigaba 1 naye usitshela lokho "U [Antiochus IV] waphanga ithempeli, wamisa umkhuba wokunikela ngomhlatshelo wokuxoshwa kweminyaka emithathu nezinyanga eziyisithupha."

    32 “Futhi labo abenza isivumelwano esibi [ngesivumelwano], uyobaholela ekuhlubukeni ngamazwi abushelelezi. Kepha ngokuqondene nabantu abazi uNkulunkulu wabo, bazonqoba futhi benze ngempumelelo. ”

    La mavesi akhomba amaqembu amabili, elinye lenza ngokungemthetho isivumelwano (sikaMose), lihlala no-Antiochus. Iqembu elibi lalifaka uJason umPristi Ophakeme (emva kuka-Onias), owazisa amaJuda ngendlela yokuphila yamaGrikhi. Bheka ama-2 Maccabees 4: 10-15.[xxiv] I-1 Maccabees 1: 11-15 ifingqa lokhu ngendlela elandelayo: " Ngalezo zinsuku kwavela kwa-Israyeli abambuka, badukisa abaningi, bathi: “Masihambe siyokwenza isivumelwano nabezizwe abasizungezile, lokhu kusukela sahlukana nabo izinhlekelele eziningi zisehlele.” 12 Lesi siphakamiso sibajabulisile, 13 futhi abanye abantu baya ngentshiseko enkosini, eyabagunyaza ukuba bagcine izimiso zabeZizwe. 14 Ngakho bakha indawo yokuzivocavoca eJerusalema, ngokwesiko labezizwe, 15 futhi asusa amamaki okusoka, futhi alahla isivumelwano esingcwele. Bazihlanganisa nabezizwe bazithengisa ngokwenza okubi. ”

    Ukuphikisana nalokhu “ukwenza kabi esivumelwaneni” bekungabanye abapristi, uMatathias namadodana akhe amahlanu, omunye wabo kwakunguJudas Maccabeus. Basukuma bavukela umbuso futhi ngemuva kwemicimbi eminingi echazwe ngenhla, ekugcineni bakwazile ukunqoba.

    33 Ngokuqondene nalabo abanokuqonda phakathi kwabantu, bayodlulisela ukuqonda kwabaningi. Futhi ngokuqinisekile bayokwenziwa bakhubeke ngenkemba nangelangabi, ngokudingiswa nangokuphangwa, izinsuku ezithile.

    UJudasi nengxenye enkulu yebutho lakhe babulawa ngenkemba (1 Maccabees 9: 17-18).

    UJonathani enye indodana, naye wabulawa nabantu abayinkulungwane. Umthelisi omkhulu ka-Antiochus washisa iJerusalema ngomlilo (1 Maccabees 1: 29-31, 2 Maccabees 7).

    34 Kepha lapho benziwa ukuba bakhubeke bayosizwa ngosizo oluncane; futhi abaningi ngokuqinisekile bayozihlanganisa nabo ngokushelela.

    UJudasi nabafowabo kaningi bahlula amabutho amakhulu kakhulu ababethunywe wona ngosizo lwe nani elincane.

    35 Futhi abanye balabo abanokuqonda bayokhubeka, ukuze benze umsebenzi wokucwengisisa ngenxa yabo futhi bahlanze futhi benze mhlophe, kuze kube isikhathi sokuphela; ngoba kusesikhathini esimisiwe.

    Umndeni kaMatathias ukhonze njengabaphristi kanye nabafundisi izizukulwane eziningana kuze kube sekupheleni kwenkathi yamaHasmonean eno-Aristobulus owabulawa nguHerode.[xxv]

    Misa okwesikhashana ezenzweni zamakhosi asenyakatho namakhosi aseningizimu athinta abantu abangamaJuda.

    IJudeya libuswa inkosi yamaJuda iHasmonean Dynasty, eyayizimele ngaphansi kwenkosi yasenyakatho

    "Ngoba kusesikhathini esinqunyelwe."

    Inkathi eyalandela lezi zimpi phakathi kwenkosi yasenyakatho nenkosi yaseningizimu yayingokuthula okulingana namaJuda nokubusa okuzinzile njengoba kungekho abalandela la makhosi beqine ngokwanele ukuba babe namandla noma balawule iJudiya. Lokhu kwakusukela ngonyaka we-140 BC kuya ku-110 BC, ngaleso sikhathi uMbuso kaSeleucid wawusususe phakathi (inkosi yasenyakatho). Le nkathi yomlando wamaJuda ibizwa ngokuthi yi-Hasmonean Dynasty. Kwawa cishe ngo-40 BCE - 37 BCE kuHerode omkhulu um-Idumean owenza iJudiya laba yindawo yamakhasimende amaRoma. IRoma yaba yinkosi entsha yasenyakatho ngokuthatha izinsalela zoMbuso WaseSeleucid ngonyaka ka-63 BC.

    Kuze kube manje, sibone ukuvelela kunikezwe ama-Xerxes, u-Alexander the Great, amaSeleucid, amaPtolemies, u-Antiochus IV Epiphanes namaMaccabees. Ucezu lokugcina lwephazili, kuze kube kufika uMesiya kanye nokubhujiswa kokugcina kohlelo lwamaJuda, ludinga ukuvezwa.

    UDaniel 11: 36-39

    Ingxabano phakathi kwenkosi yaseningizimu nenkosi yasenyakatho iyavuselela kanye “nenkosi”.

    36 “Inkosi empeleni izokwenza ngokwentando yayo, izikhulise, iphakamise ngaphezu kwabo bonke onkulunkulu; uzokhuluma ngokumangalisayo ngoNkulunkulu wonkulunkulu. Ngokuqinisekile uzophumelela kuze kube yilapho isijeziso sesiphelile; ngoba into enqunyiwe kumele yenziwe. 37 Futhi ngeke anake uNkulunkulu wokhokho bakhe; Futhi ngeke afune isifiso sabesifazane nabo bonke abanye onkulunkulu, kodwa uzozikhulisa ngaphezu kwawo wonke umuntu. 38 Kepha kuye unkulunkulu wezinqaba, esikhundleni sakhe uyakunika inkazimulo; unike unkulunkulu angazi ukuthi okhokho bakhe angazi ukuthi uzomkhazimulisa ngegolide nangesiliva nangetshe eliyigugu nangezinto ezifiselekayo. 39 Futhi uzosebenza ngokuphumelelayo ngokumelene nezinqaba ezivikelwe kakhulu, kanye nonkulunkulu wesinye isizwe. Noma ngubani amnikeze ukuqashelwa uyokwandisa inkazimulo, futhi empeleni ubenze babuse phakathi kwabaningi; uyokwabela umhlabathi intengo.

    Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi lesi sigaba siqala ngaso "Inkosi" ngaphandle kokucacisa ukuthi uyinkosi yasenyakatho noma inkosi yaseningizimu. Eqinisweni, ngokusekelwe evesini 40, akayona inkosi yasenyakatho noma inkosi yaseningizimu, njengoba ehlangana nenkosi yaseningizimu ekulweni nenkosi yasenyakatho. Lokhu kuzokhombisa ukuthi uyinkosi phezu kweJudiya. Ukuphela kwenkosi yanoma iyiphi inothi futhi ebaluleke kakhulu maqondana nokuza kukaMesiya nokuthinta iJudiya nguHerode Omkhulu, futhi wabusa iJudiya cishe ngo-40 BC.

    INkosi (UHerode Omkhulu)

    "Inkosi izokwenza ngokwentando yakhe ”

    Ukuthi le nkosi yayinamandla kangakanani futhi kukhonjiswa yilesi sisho. Ambalwa amakhosi anamandla ngokwanele ukwenza lokho akufunayo. Ekulandelaneni kwamakhosi kulesi siprofetho kuphela amanye amakhosi abe nawo la mandla kwakungu-Alexander the Great (Daniyeli 11: 3) "Uzobusa ngokubusa okukhulu enze njengokuthanda kwakhe" , no-Antiochus the Great (III) kusuka kuDaniel 11:16, ethi ngaye “futhi lowo oza emelana naye uzokwenza ngokwentando yakhe, futhi ngeke kube namuntu phambi kwakhe ”. Ngisho no-Antiochus IV Epiphanes, owaletha inkathazo eJudiya, wayengenawo lamandla, njengoba kuboniswa ukumelana okuqhubekayo kwamaMaccabee. Lokhu kunezela isisindo ekuboneni uHerode Omkhulu ngokuthi “inkosi".

    “Futhi uyoziphakamisa azikhulise ngaphezu kwabo bonke onkulunkulu; uzokhuluma ngokumangalisayo ngoNkulunkulu wonkulunkulu ”

    UJosephus uloba ukuthi uHerode wenziwa umbusi waseGalile eneminyaka engu-15 ngu-Antipater.[xxvi] Ukulandisa kuyaqhubeka nokuchaza ukuthi walisebenzisa kanjani ngokushesha ithuba lokuzithuthukisa.[xxvii] Washeshe waba nedumela lokuba yindoda enobudlova nenesibindi.[xxviii]

    Wayekhuluma kanjani ngokumangalisayo ngoNkulunkulu wonkulunkulu?

    U-Isaya 9: 6-7 ubikezeleNgoba sizalelwe umntwana, sinikezwe indodana, ukubusa kobukhosi kuzoba semahlombe akhe. Ibizo lakhe lizabizwa ngokuthi nguMeluleki Omangalisayo, UNkulunkulu onamandla, Ubaba waphakade, iSikhulu Sokuthula. Ubuningi bokubusa kwamakhosi nokuthula ngeke kube kuphela,”. Yebo, uHerode wakhuluma kabi ngoNkulunkulu wonkulunkulu [uJesu Kristu, uNkulunkulu wabanamandla, ngaphezu konkulunkulu bezizwe.] Njengoba ayala amabutho akhe ukuba abulale umntwana uJesu. (Bheka uMathewu 2: 1-18).

    Njengomcabango oseceleni, isenzo sokubulala izingane ezingenacala sibhekwa njengobunye bobugebengu obukhulu kunazo zonke umuntu angabenza. Lokhu kunjalo ikakhulukazi njengoba kukhathaza unembeza wethu esiwunikwe uNkulunkulu, futhi ukwenza isenzo esinjalo kungukuphambana naloloembeza esinikezwe uNkulunkulu noJesu abadali bethu.

    “Bonke onkulunkulu” kungenzeka ukuthi libhekisela kwabanye ababusi nababusi, (abanamandla) azikhulise ngaphezulu. Phakathi kokunye futhi wabeka nomkhwe wakhe u-Aristobulus njengompristi ophakeme, kwathi kungakabiphi, wambulala. [xxix]

    IJudiya libuswa yiNkosi, ekhonza inkosi entsha yasenyakatho neRoma

    “Ngokuqinisekile uzophumelela kuze kube yilapho isijeziso sesiphelile; ngoba into enqunywe ngayo kumele yenziwe. ”

    Wenze njani uHerodi “Baphumelele kuze kube kuphela kokulahlwa [kwesizwe samaJuda].” Wakhombisa ukuphumelela ngoba inzalo yakhe yabusa izingxenye zesizwe samaJuda kwaze kwaba sekupheleni kokubhujiswa kwabo ngonyaka ka-70. UHerode Antipas, owabulala uJohane uMbhapathizi, uHerode Agrippa I, owabulala uJakobe futhi wabopha uPitrosi, ngenkathi uHerode Agrippa II wathumela uMphostoli uPawulu ngamaketanga eRoma, kungakabiphi ngaphambi kokuba amaJuda avukele amaRoma, azilethele imbubhiso.

    37 “Futhi ngeke anake uNkulunkulu wokhokho bakhe; futhi ngeke afune isifiso sabesifazane nabo bonke abanye onkulunkulu, kodwa uyozikhulisa ngaphezu kwawo wonke umuntu. ”

    IBhayibheli livame ukusebenzisa ibinzana “UNkulunkulu wawoyihlo” ukubhekisa uNkulunkulu ka-Abrahama, u-Isaka, noJakobe (isib. bheka u-Eksodusi 3:15). UHerode Omkhulu wayengeyena umJuda, kunalokho wayengum-Idumean, kodwa ngenxa yemishado exubile phakathi kwabakwa-Edomi namaJuda, ama-Idumean ayevame ukubhekwa njengamaJuda, ikakhulukazi lapho eba amaproselithe. Wayeyindodana ka-Edomi Antipata. UJosephus wambiza ngokuthi ungumJuda ongumuntu.[xxx]

    Futhi, abakwa-Edomi bayinzalo ka-Esawu, umfowabo kaJakobe, ngakho-ke uNkulunkulu ka-Abrahama no-Isaka, kwakufanele futhi abe nguNkulunkulu wakhe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngokusho kukaJosephus, uHerode wayevame ukuziveza ukuthi ungumJuda lapho ekhuluma namaJuda.[xxxi] Eqinisweni, abanye babalandeli bakhe abangamaJuda babembheka njengoMesiya. Ngenxa yalokho uHerode kufanele acabangele uNkulunkulu wawoyise, uNkulunkulu ka-Abrahama, kodwa esikhundleni salokho wethule ukukhulekelwa kukaKesari.

    Isifiso esikhulu sabo bonke abesifazane abangamaJuda kwakuwukuzala uMesiya, nokho njengoba sizobona ngezansi, akazange azinake lezi zifiso, lapho ebulala bonke abafana baseBetlehema emzameni wokubulala uJesu. Akazange futhi acabangele omunye “unkulunkulu” njengoba ebulala noma ngubani ambheka njengosengozini.

    38 Kepha unkulunkulu wezinqaba uyakunika inkazimulo esikhundleni sakhe; uzonikeza unkulunkulu unkulunkulu ababengazi ukuthi okhokho bakhe angamkhazimulisa ngegolide nangesiliva nangetshe eliyigugu nangezinto ezifiselekayo. ”

    UHerode wanikezela kuphela embusweni Wezwe WamaRoma, owezempi, onjengesimbi "Unkulunkulu wezinqaba". Unikeze inkazimulo kuqala uJulius Caesar, kwathi ku-Antony, wabe esethola u-Antony noCleopatra VII, wabe eseya ku-Augustus (Octavian), ngokudlulisela izipho ngezipho ezibizayo. Wakha iKhesariya njengechweba elihle ngokubabazekayo elihlonishwe uKhesari, futhi kamuva wakha kabusha iSamariya futhi waliqamba ngokuthi uSebaste (uSebastos olingana no-Augustus). [xxxii]

    Obaba bakhe nabo bebengamazi lo unkulunkulu, umbuso Wezwe WamaRoma njengoba wawusanda kuba umbuso wezwe.

    39 “Uyosebenza ngokuphumelelayo ngokumelene nezinqaba ezivikelwe kakhulu, kanye nonkulunkulu wesinye isizwe. Noma ngubani amnikeze ukuqashelwa uyokwandisa inkazimulo, futhi empeleni ubenze babuse phakathi kwabaningi; uyokwaba umhlaba ngenani lentengo. ”

    UJosephus uloba ukuthi ngemuva kokuba uKhesari enikeze uHerode esinye isifundazwe ukuba sibuse, uHerode wamisa imifanekiso kaKesari ukuba ikhulekwe ezindaweni eziqinile futhi wakha amadolobha amaningi abizwa ngokuthi iKhesariya. [xxxiii] Kulokhu wanikeza “noma ngubani omnikeze ukuqashelwa…. uchichima inkazimulo ”.

    Isiphephelo esinamandla kakhulu ezweni laseJudiya kwakuyintaba yeThempeli. UHerode wenza ngempumelelo ngokumelene nayo, ngokuyakha kabusha, futhi ngasikhathi sinye wayiguqula yaba inqaba ngezinhloso zakhe. Eqinisweni, wakha i-cordon eqinile ohlangothini olusenyakatho lweThempeli, walinaka, waliqamba ngokuthi i-Tower of Antonia (ngemuva kukaMark Antony). [xxxiv]

    UJosephus usitshela nangomcimbi kungekudala nje uHerode abulala umkakhe uMariamne, ukuthi "U-Alexandra wahlala ngalesi sikhathi eJerusalema; Lapho esatshelwa ukuthi uHerode wayekuziphi izimo, wazama ukuthola izindawo ezinamandla ezaziseduze nomuzi, ezazimbili, elinye lomuzi uqobo, elinye lelingasethempelini; futhi lezo ezazingabanikela ezandleni zabo ukube izwe lonke beliphansi kwamandla abo, ngoba ngaphandle komyalo wabo bekungenakwenzeka ukunikela imihlatshelo yabo; ” [xxxv]

    UDaniel 11: 40-43

    40 “Ngesikhathi sokuphela kwenkosi yaseningizimu iyohlanganyela naye ekuqhubukusheni, futhi inkosi yasenyakatho iyovunguza ngezinqola nangabagibeli bamahhashi nangemikhumbi eminingi; ngokuqinisekile uyongena emazweni futhi akhukhuleke adlule.

    Inkosi yaseningizimu: UCleopatra VII waseGibhithe enoMark Antony

    Inkosi yasenyakatho: U-Augustus (Octavian) waseRoma

    IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yasenyakatho (iRoma)

    "Nasesikhathini sokuphela", ubeka lemicimbi eduze nesikhathi sokuphela kwabantu abangamaJuda, abantu bakaDaniel. Kulokhu, sithola ukufana okufanayo eMpini yase-Actian, lapho u-Antony wathonywa kakhulu nguCleopatra VII waseGibhithe (ngonyaka wesikhombisa wokubusa kukaHerode eJudiya). I-push yokuqala kule mpi yenziwa yinkosi yaseningizimu, owayesekelwa ngalesi sikhathi "Ukuzibandakanya naye" nguHerode Omkhulu owanikelayo.[xxxvi] I-infantry imvamisa ukunquma izimpi, kepha lokhu bekuhlukile ngoba amabutho ka-Augustus Khesari aqubuka futhi anqoba ngomkhumbi wakhe, owanqoba impi enkulu yamasosha yase-Actium ogwini lwaseGrisi. U-Antony wancindezelwa ukuba alwe nomatilosi akhe kunokuma emhlabeni nguCleopatra VII ngokusho kukaPlutarch.[xxxvii]

    41 “Futhi uzongena ezweni Lomhlobiso, futhi kuzoba khona [amazwe] amaningi ayokwenziwa akhubeke. Kepha yilaba abayophuma esandleni sakhe, u-Edomi noMowabi nengxenye enkulu yabantwana bakwa-Amoni. ”

    U-Augustus wabe eselandela u-Antony waya eGibhithe kodwa ngomhlaba wadabula iSyria neJudiya, lapho “UHerodi umamukele ngezinto ezijabulisa ubukhosi ” enza ukuthula no-Augustus ngokushintsha izinhlangothi ezihle. [xxxviii]

    Ngenkathi u-Augusto eqonda ngqo eGibhithe, u-Augustus wathumela amanye emadodeni akhe ngaphansi kwe-Aelius Gallus eyayihlanganiswa namanye amadoda kaHerode ngokumelene ne-Edomi, noMowabi, ne-Amoni (indawo ezungeze i-Amman, iJordani), kepha lokhu kwehluleka. [xxxix]

    42 “Uzoqhubeka elula isandla sakhe emazweni; ngokuqondene nezwe laseGibhithe, ngeke abe ngumbaleki. ”

    Kamuva lapho impi iqhubeka eduzane nase-Alexandria, iqembu lasolwandle lika-Antony lamshiya lajoyina iqembu lika-Augustus. Amahhashi akhe abuyela eceleni kuka-Augustus. Ngempela, imikhumbi eminingi nezinqola eziningi nabamahhashi, yavumela inkosi yasenyakatho, u-Augustus ukuba anqobe uMark Antony, owabe esezibulala.[xl] U-Augustus manje wayeseneGibhithe. Kungekudala ngemuva kwalokho, wabuyisela umhlaba kuHerode owathathwa nguCleopatra kuHerode.

    43 “Futhi iyobusa phezu kwengcebo ecashile yegolide nesiliva nangazo zonke izinto ezifiselekayo zaseGibhithe. AbaseLibya nabase-Ethiyopiya bayoba sezitebhisini zakhe. ”

    UCleopatra VII wafihla umcebo wakhe ezikhumbuzweni eduze kwethempeli lase-Isis, u-Augustus alithola. [xli]

    AbaseLibya nabaseTopiya base benesihe sika-Agastius futhi eminyakeni eyi-11 kamuva wathumela uKornelius Balbus ukuba ayobamba iLibya nalabo aseningizimu naseningizimu-ntshonalanga yeGibhithe.[xlii]

    U-Awugustu waphinde futhi wanikeza izifundazwe eziningi ezungeze iJudiya ezandleni zikaHerode.

    Ukulandisa kukaDaniel kubuyela “enkosini”, uHerode.

    UDaniel 11: 44-45

    44 “Kepha kuzoba nemibiko ezomphazamisa, kusukela ekuphumeni kwelanga nasenyakatho, futhi ngokuqinisekile uyophuma ngolaka olukhulu ukuze aqothule futhi anikele abaningi ekubhujisweni.

    INkosi (UHerode Omkhulu)

    IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yasenyakatho (iRoma)

    Ukulandisa kukaMathewu 2: 1 kusitshela lokho "Ngemuva kokuba uJesu ezelwe eBhetlehema laseJudiya ngezinsuku zenkosi uHerode, kubukeka sengathi ababhula ngezinkanyezi abavela ezingxenyeni ezisempumalanga beza eJerusalema". Yebo, imibiko eyamkhathaza kakhulu uHerode Omkhulu yaphuma ekuphumeni kwelanga ivela empumalanga (lapho kwaqala khona ababhula ngezinkanyezi).

    UMathewu 2:16 uyaqhubeka "UHerode, esebonile ukuthi ukhethwe izazi zezinkanyezi, wafikelwa yintukuthelo enkulu, wathumela ukuba kuqedwe nya bonke abafana eBetlehema nakuzo zonke izifunda zalo." Yebo, uHerode Omkhulu waphuma ethukuthele kakhulu ukuze aqothule futhi anikele abaningi ekubhujisweni. UMathewu 2: 17-18 uyaqhubeka “Kwasekugcwaliseka lokho okwakhulunywa ngoJeremiya umprofethi, esithi: 'Kwazwakala izwi eRama, ukukhala nokulila okukhulu; kwakunguRaheli ekhalela izingane zakhe futhi wayengathandi ukududuzwa, ngoba azisekho ”. Lokhu kugcwaliseka kwesiprofetho sikaDaniel kunganikeza isizathu sokufakwa kwale akhawunti encwadini kaMathewu.

    Cishe ngasikhathi sinye, mhlawumbe eminyakeni emibili noma eyedlule, imibiko eyamphazamisa kakhulu uHerode nayo yavela enyakatho. Kwakungaphawulwa ngenye yamadodana akhe (u-Antipater) ukuthi amadodana akhe amabili aseMariamne amenzela uzungu. Aquliswa amacala eRoma kodwa akhululwa. Kodwa-ke, lokhu akuzange kube ngaphambi kokuba uHerode acabange ukubabulala.[xliii]

    Kunezinye ezinye izehlakalo eziqinisekisa ukuthambekela kukaHerode kokufutheka okukhulu. UJosephus uqopha ku-Antiquities of the Jewish, Book XVII, Isahluko 6, Para 3-4, ukuthi washisa waze wabulala uMathiya nabangane bakhe ababekade behlikihle futhi bagqekeza i-Eagle yaseRoma uHerode ayeyibekile ethempelini.

    45 Uyotshala amatende akhe wobukhosi phakathi kolwandle olukhulu nentaba engcwele yoMhlobiso; futhi kuzofanele afike yonke indlela yakhe kuze kube sekupheleni kwakhe, futhi ngeke abe namsizi wakhe.

    UHerode wakha izigodlo ezimbili “Amatende wobukhosi” eJerusalema. Olunye olusodongeni olusenyakatho ntshonalanga yedolobha lasePhezulu laseJerusalema egqumeni elingasentshonalanga. Kwakuyindawo yokuhlala eyinhloko. Kwakungasentshonalanga ngqo neThempeli “phakathi kolwandle olukhulu”[IMedithera] no “Intaba engcwele Yomhlobiso” [Ithempeli]. UHerode wayenenye futhi inqaba yenkosi yobukhosi eseningizimu yalesi sakhiwo sokuqala, ngasodongeni olusentshonalanga, endaweni eyaziwa namuhla njenge-Armeni Quarter, yingakho “Itendes".

    UHerode uqhubeke nokufa ukufa okungajabulisi kwenhlupheko enyanyisayo engalapheki. Waze wazama nokuzibulala. Impela, kwakukhona "Akekho umsizi wakhe".[xliv]

    UDaniel 12: 1-7

    UDanyeli 12: 1 uyaqhubeka nalesi siprofetho enikeza isizathu nokuthi kugxilwe kuphi ukuthi kungani kwafakwa, ukukhomba uMesiya nokuphela kohlelo lwezinto lwamaJuda.

    Isikhulu Esikhulu: UJesu no “Zonke izinto ziyaphela”

    IJudiya libuswa yinkosi yasenyakatho (iRoma)

    "1Ngaleso sikhathi uMikayeli uzokuma, isikhulu esikhulu, esimele abantwana babantu bakho. ”

    Ngokulandelana kwezenzakalo njengoba sizilandele ngoDaniel 11, kusho ukuthi njengoba uMathewu izahluko 1 no-2 zibonisa, uJesu uMesiya “isikhulu esikhulu ”, "UMichael, ngubani onjengoNkulunkulu?" asukume ngalesi sikhathi. UJesu wazalwa ngonyaka wokugcina owodwa noma emibili wokuphila nokubusa kweNkosi uHerode Omkhulu. Wasukuma ukuze asindise “amadodana abantu bakho [bakaDaniel] eminyakeni engaba ngu-30 kamuva lapho ebhapathizwa eJordani nguJohane uMbhaptizi [ngonyaka ka 29 AD] (UMathewu 3: 13-17).

    “Futhi ngokuqinisekile kuyokwenzeka kube nesikhathi sokuhlupheka esingakaze sibe sinjalo kusukela kwaba khona isizwe kuze kube yileso sikhathi”

    Jesu wecwayisa bafundzi bakhe ngesikhatsi lesitako selusizi. UMathewu 24: 15, uMark 13: 14, kanye noLuka 21: 20 babhala isixwayiso sakhe.

    UMathewu 24:15 usho amazwi kaJesu, "Ngakho-ke, lapho ubona isinengiso esibangela incithakalo, njengoba kukhulunywa ngomprofethi uDaniel, emi endaweni engcwele, (umfundi makasebenzise ukuqonda), khona-ke labo abaseJudiya mabaqale ukubalekela ezintabeni."

    Amarekhodi 13: 14 "Kodwa-ke, lapho ubona into enyanyekayo ebangela incithakalo, imi lapho kungafanele, (ofundayo makasebenzise ukuqonda) khona-ke labo abaseJudiya mabaqale ukubalekela ezintabeni."

    ULuka 21:20 usitshela ukuthi “Ngaphezu kwalokho, lapho ubona iJerusalema lizungezwe amabutho akanisa, khona-ke yazini ukuthi ukuchithwa kwalo sekusondele. Khona-ke labo abaseJudiya mababalekele ezintabeni futhi abaphakathi kwalo [iJerusalema] mabasuke futhi abasezindaweni zasemaphandleni bangangeni kulo. ”

    Abanye baxhumanisa uDaniel 11: 31-32 nalesi siprofetho sikaJesu, noma kunjalo embhalweni oqhubekayo kaDaniel 11, nokuthi uDaniel 12 uyaqhubeka (izahluko zanamuhla ziyimpicabadala), kunengqondo kakhulu ukuxhumanisa isiprofetho sikaJesu noDaniel I-12: 1b ekhombisa isikhathi sokucabanga okubi kakhulu kunesinye sokuhlupha isizwe samaJuda kuze kube ngaleso sikhathi. UJesu wabuye waveza isikhathi esinje sokuhlupheka nosizi esasingasoze senzeka esizweni samaJuda (uMathewu 24: 21).

    Ngeke sakwazi ukukubona lokho ukufana okufana phakathi kukaDaniel 12: 1b noMathewu 24:21.

    UDanyeli 12: “Futhi ngokuqinisekile kuyokwenzeka kube nesikhathi sokuhlupheka esingakaze sibe sinjalo kusukela kwaba khona isizwe kuze kube yileso sikhathi”

    UMathewu 24: "Ngoba ngaleso sikhathi kuzoba khona usizi / usizi olukhulu olungakaze lube khona selokhu kwasungulwa umhlaba kuze kube manje"

    Impi kaJosephus yamaJuda, i-End of Book II, Book III - Incwadi VII ichaza lesi sikhathi sosizi esehlele isizwe samaJuda, sibi kakhulu kunedlula yonke imbandezelo eyamehlela ngaphambili, futhi icabanga nokubhujiswa kweJerusalema nguNebukadinesari no ukubusa kuka-Antiochus IV.

    "Ngaleso sikhathi abantu bakho bayobaleka, wonke umuntu otholakala ebhalwe phansi encwadini."

    AmaJuda amukela uJesu njengoMesiya futhi alalela izixwayiso zakhe zembubhiso eyayiseduze, aphunyuka nempilo yawo. Kubhala u-Eusebius “Kepha abantu bebandla laseJerusalema babeyalelwe yisambulo, baqiniswa phambi kwamadoda agunyaziwe ngaphambi kwempi, ukuba baphume kulo muzi, bahlala edolobheni elithile lasePheraya elibizwa ngokuthi iPella. Futhi lapho labo abakholelwa kuKristu sebefikile lapho bevela eJerusalema, khona-ke, kungathi umuzi wobukhosi wamaJuda nezwe lonke laseJudiya babegcwele abantu ngokuphelele, ukwahlulelwa uNkulunkulu kwagcina kufinyelele kulabo ababenze isenzo sokucasukela leso sikhathi UKristu nabaphostoli bakhe, futhi wasibhubhisa ngokuphelele leso sizukulwane sabantu abangamhloniphi. ” [xlv]

    Labo bafundi abangamaKristu abasebenzisa ukuqonda lapho befunda amazwi kaJesu, basinda.

    "2 Abaningi abalele othulini lomhlaba bayovuka, bavukele ekuphileni okuphakade nalabo abe namahloni nokwedelela okuphakade. ”

    UJesu wenza ukuvuswa kwaba-3, uJesu uqobo wavuswa kwathi abaPhostoli bavusa abanye abangu-2, futhi ukulandisa okukuMathewu 27: 52-53 okungabonisa ukuvuswa kwabantu ekufeni kukaJesu.

    "3 Futhi abanokuqondisisa bayokhanya njengokukhanya komkhathi, nalabo abalethela abaningi ukulunga, njengezinkanyezi kuze kube nini nanini, yebo kuze kube phakade. ”

    Ngokwesimo sokuqonda kwesiprofetho esikuDaniel 11, noDaniel 12: 1-2, labo abanokuqonda futhi bacwebezela njengokukhanya komkhathi phakathi kwesizukulwane esibi samaJuda, kungaba yilawo maJuda amukela uJesu njengoMesiya futhi baba ngamaKristu.

    "6 … Kuzoba isikhathi esingakanani ukuphela kwalezi zinto ezinhle kangaka? 7 … Kuzoba ngokwesikhathi esinqunyiwe, izikhathi ezimisiwe nesigamu."

    Igama lesiHeberu elihunyushwe "Kuhle" liphethe okushiwo ukuthi lingaphezu kokuvamile, okunzima ukuliqonda, noma ukusebenzelana kukaNkulunkulu nabantu bakhe, noma izenzo zikaNkulunkulu zokwahlulela nokukhulula.[xlvi]

    Kuthathe isikhathi esingakanani ukwahlulela kwamaJuda? Kusukela ekubuyiselweni kwabaseRoma baseJerusalema kuze kube sekuweni nasekubhujisweni kwakuyinkathi yeminyaka emithathu nengxenye.

    "Lapho nje sekuphothulwe ukwenziwa amandla kwabantu abangcwele izingcezu, zonke lezi zinto zizophela. ”

    Ukubhujiswa kweGalile, neJudiya okwenziwa uVespasian kwathi indodana yakhe uTitus, okwaphelela ekubhujisweni kweJerusalema, neThempeli elingenalo itshe elashiywa etsheni, laqeda isizwe samaJuda njengesizwe. Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi kuqhubeke babange besona sizwe esihlukile, futhi nangawo wonke amarekhodi ezizukulwane alahlekile ngokuchithwa kweThempeli, akekho noyedwa owayengakhombisa ukuthi bangamaJuda, noma bavela kusiphi isizwe, futhi akekho owayezokwazi ukusho ukuthi uMesiya. Yebo, ukuqalwa kwamandla abantu abangcwele [isizwe sakwa-Israyeli] bekuphelile futhi kwaletha lesi siprofetho ekugcwaliseni nasekupheleni kokugcwaliseka.

    UDaniel 12: 9-13

    "9 Futhi [ingelosi] yaqhubeka yathi: Hamba, Daniyeli, ngoba la mazwi enziwe ayimfihlo futhi abekwa uphawu kuze kube isikhathi sokuphela.

    Lamagama abekwa uphawu kuze kufike isikhathi sokuphela kwesizwe samaJuda. Kungaleso sikhathi kuphela lapho uJesu axwayisa amaJuda ekhulu lokuqala ukuthi ingxenye yokugcina yokugcwaliseka kwesiprofetho sikaDaniel yayizofika nokuthi izogcwaliseka esizukulwaneni sabo. Leso sizukulwane sahlala eminye iminyaka engama-33- 37 ngaphambi kokubhujiswa kwaso phakathi kuka-66 AD no-70 AD.

    "10 Abaningi bayozihlanza bazenze mhlophe futhi bahlanzwe. Ababi ngokuqinisekile bayokwenza kabi, futhi abekho ababi abazokuqonda, kodwa abanokuqonda bayokuqonda. ”

    AmaJuda amaningi anenhliziyo enhle aba ngamaKristu, azihlanza ngokubhapathizwa emanzini nangokuphenduka kwezindlela zawo zangaphambili, futhi azama ukufana noKristu. Baphinde bacwengisiswa ukushushiswa. Kodwa-ke, iningi lamaJuda, ikakhulukazi abaholi benkolo abanjengobaFarisi nabaSadusi benza kabi, ngokubulala uMesiya nokushushisa abafundi bakhe. Behlulekile nokuqonda ukubaluleka kweziyeleliso zikaJesu zokubhujiswa kanye nokugcwaliseka kokugcina kwesiprofetho sikaDaniels esasizokwehlela. Kodwa-ke, labo abanokuqonda, abasebenzisa ukuqonda, balalela isixwayiso sikaJesu babaleka eJudiya naseJerusalema ngokushesha nje lapho sebekwazi ukubona nje amabutho amaRoma angabahedeni nokufakwa kwabo konkulunkulu babo, emi ethempelini bekungafanele, ngo-66CE kwathi lapho ibutho lamaRoma libuyela emuva ngenxa yezizathu ezithile ezingaziwa, lasebenzisa lelo thuba ukuphunyula.

    "11 Futhi kusukela ngesikhathi kususwe lesi sici njalo kubekwe into enengekayo edala incithakalo, kuzoba nezinsuku eziyinkulungwane namakhulu amabili namashumi ayisishiyagalolunye. "

    Ukuchazwa okuhlosiwe kwale ndima akucaci ngokuphelele. Kodwa-ke, isici esiqhubekayo sasizobukeka sisho imihlatshelo yansuku zonke ethempelini. Lezi zaphela ethempelini likaHerode ezungeze abahlanuth Agasti, 70 AD. [xlvii] lapho ubupristi behluleka ukuthola amadoda anele ukuwanikela. Lokhu kusekelwe kuJosephus, Wars of the Jewish, Incwadi 6, Isahluko 2, (94) esithi “[UThithu] wayetshelwe ngalo lolo suku okwakungu-17 ngaloth usuku lwePanemus[xlviii] (Tammuz), umhlatshelo obizwa nge- “Daily Sacrifice” wehlulekile, futhi awuzange unikelwe kuNkulunkulu ngenxa yabantu abafuna ukuwunikela. ” Into enyanyekayo ebangela incithakalo, iqondwe njengamabutho amaRoma kanye 'nonkulunkulu' bawo, umendo wabo webutho, bekade kumi ethempelini eminyakeni embalwa edlule ngosuku oluthile phakathi kwabali-13.th futhi 23rd Novemba, 66 AD.[xlix]

    Izinsuku eziyi-1,290 ukusuka ku-5th Agasti 70 AD, bekuzokuletha ku-15th Febhruwari, 74 AD. Akwaziwa ngqo ukuthi ukuvinjezelwa kweMasada kwaqala nini futhi kwaphela, kepha izinhlamvu zemali zangonyaka ka-73 AD zitholakele lapho. Kodwa ukuvinjezelwa kwamaRoma kwakuqabukela kuthathe izinyanga ezimbalwa. Izinsuku ezingama-45 cishe zizoba igebe elifanele (phakathi kuka-1290 no-1335). Usuku olunikezwe uJosephus, Wars of the Jewish, Book VII, Isahluko 9, (401) yi-15th usuku lukaXanthicus (Nisan) okwakungu-31 Mashi, 74 AD. kukhalenda lamaJuda.[l]

    Ngenkathi amakhalenda engiwasebenzisile ehlukile, (iTire, ngaleso sikhathi eyayingeyamaJuda), kubonakala sengathi kwenzeka ngengozi enkulu ukuthi igebe laliyizinsuku eziyi-1,335 phakathi kuka-5th Agasti, 70 AD. kanye no-31st Mashi 74 AD., Ekuweni kokumelana kokugcina kokuhlubuka kwamaJuda kanye nokuphela kokulwa kwempi.

    "12 Ubusisiwe lowo ohlale elindele ofika ezinsukwini eziyinkulungwane namakhulu amathathu namashumi amathathu nanhlanu! ”

    Ngokuqinisekile, noma imaphi amaJuda asinda kuze kube sekupheleni kwezinsuku eziyi-1,335 ayengakujabulela ukusinda konke ukufa nokubhujiswa, kepha ikakhulukazi, kwakuyilabo abagcina lezehlakalo bezilindele, amaKristu ayezoba sesimweni esihle kakhulu sokuba ujabule.

    "13 Kepha wena, iya ngasekupheleni; uzophumula, kepha uyokumela isabelo sakho ekupheleni kwezinsuku. ”

    Kepha uDaniel wakhuthazeka ukuba aqhubeke ephila, kuze kube-yisikhathi sokuphela[li], [isikhathi sokwahlulelwa kohlelo lwamaJuda], kodwa watshelwa ukuthi uzophumula [alale ekufeni] ngaphambi kokuba leso sikhathi sifike.

    Kepha, isikhuthazo sokugcina asinikezwe, ukuthi wayeyokuma [avuswe] ukuze athole ifa lakhe, umvuzo wakhe [inkatho yakhe], hhayi ngesikhathi sokuphela [kohlelo lwamaJuda njengesizwe] kepha ukuphela kwezinsuku, ezazizoqhubeka futhi ngokuzayo.

    (Usuku lokugcina: bona uJohane 6: 39-40,44,54, Johane 11: 24, Johane 12: 48)

    (Usuku Lokwahlulela: bona uMathewu 10: 15, UMathewu 11: 22-24, UMathewu 12: 36, 2 Petru 2: 9, 2 Petru 3: 7, 1 Johane 4: 17, Juda 6)

    Ngo-70 AD,[lii] namaRoma ngaphansi kukaTitus abhubhisa iJudiya neJerusalema “zonke lezi zinto zizophela ”.

    IJudiya neGalile labhujiswa yinkosi yasenyakatho (iRoma) ngaphansi kukaVespasian nendodana yakhe uTitus

    Ngokuzayo, abantu bakaNkulunkulu abangcwele babezoba yilawo maKhristu eqiniso, aqhamuka ezizindeni zamaJuda nezabeZizwe.

    Isifinyezo se-Daniels Prophecy

    Incwadi KaDaniel Inkosi Yaseningizimu Inkosi Yasenyakatho IJudiya libuswa yi Izincwajana zemininingwane
    11: 1-2 iPheresiya Amakhosi ayi-4 ama-Persian ukuze athinte iSizwe samaJuda

    IXerxes ungowesine

    11: 3-4 Greece U-Alexander the Great,

    4 Izizukulwane

    11: 5 UPtolemy I [IGibhithe] I-Seleucus I [Seleucid] Inkosi Yaseningizimu
    11: 6 UPtolemy II U-Antiochus II Inkosi Yaseningizimu
    11: 7-9 UPtolemy III USeleucus II Inkosi Yaseningizimu
    11: 10-12 UPtolemy IV I-Seleucus III,

    U-Antiochus III

    Inkosi Yaseningizimu
    11: 13-19 I-Ptolemy IV,

    UPtolemy V

    U-Antiochus III Inkosi Yasenyakatho
    11: 20 UPtolemy V I-Seleucus IV Inkosi Yasenyakatho
    11: 21-35 I-Ptolemy VI I-Antiochus IV Inkosi Yasenyakatho Rise of the Maccabees
    Isilo samaJuda samaHasmonean I-Era yama-Maccabees

    (Izibusa ngaphansi kweNkosi yasenyakatho)

    11: 36-39 UHerode, (ngaphansi kweNkosi yeNyakatho) Inkosi: UHerode Omkhulu
    11: 40-43 Cleopatra VII,

    (Maka Antony)

    I-Augustus [iRoma] UHerode, (ngaphansi kweNkosi yeNyakatho) UMbuso WaseNingizimu ofakwe yiNkosi yaseNyakatho
    11: 44-45 UHerode, (ngaphansi kweNkosi yeNyakatho) Inkosi: UHerode Omkhulu
    12: 1-3 Inkosi Yasenyakatho (iRoma) Isikhulu Esikhulu: Jesus,

    AmaJuda aba ngamaKhristu asindiswa

    12:1, 6-7, 12:9-12 UVespasian, nendodana kaTitus Inkosi Yasenyakatho (iRoma) Ukuphela kwesizwe samaJuda,

    Isiphetho sesiprofetho.

    12: 13 Ukuphela Kwezinsuku,

    Usuku Lokugcina,

    Usuku Lokwahlulela

    References:

    [i] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabonidus_Chronicle Umlando waseNabonidus uqopha "Ukuphangwa kukaKoresi e-Ecbatana, inhloko-dolobha yase-Astyages, kubhalwe ngonyaka wesithupha wokubusa kukaNabonidus. … Omunye umkhankaso kaKoresi uqoshwa ngonyaka wesishiyagalolunye, okungenzeka umele ukuhlaselwa kwakhe uLidiya nokubanjwa kweSardis. ” Njengoba kuqondakala ukuthi iBabylona yawa ngo-17th unyaka kaNabonidus, obeka uKoresi njengeNkosi yasePheresiya okungenani iminyaka eyi-12 ngaphambi kokunqotshwa kwakhe yiBabiloni. Wafika esihlalweni sobukhosi sasePheresiya cishe iminyaka engu-7 ngaphambi kokuba ahlasele ama-Astyages, owayeyinkosi yeMedia. Ngemuva kweminyaka emithathu wehlula njengoba kubhalwe encwadini kaNabondius. Sekukonke cishe iminyaka engama-22 ngaphambi kokuwa kweBabiloni.

    Ngokuvumelana ne I-Cyrusopaedia waseXenophon, ngemuva kweminyaka engamashumi amathathu nambili yokuqina, ama-Astyages alahlekelwe ukwesekwa yizicukuthwane zakhe ngesikhathi sempi noKoresi, uXenophon amqonda njengomzukulu ka-Astyages. Lokhu kwaphumela ekusungulweni kombuso wasePheresiya nguKoresi. (bheka iXenophon, 431 BCE-350? BCE in I-Cyropaedia: IMfundo KaKoresi - nge-Project Gutenberg.)

    [Ii] https://www.livius.org/articles/place/behistun/ Ukuze uthole ubufakazi bokuthi uDarius the Great uphumelele uBardiya / Gaumata / Smerdis ubona umbhalo waseBehistun lapho uDarius [I] abhala khona amandla akhe.

    [Iii] https://files.romanroadsstatic.com/materials/herodotus.pdf

    [Iv] I-ANABASIS OF ALEXANDER, ukuhunyushwa kwe-Arrian the Nicomedian, Isahluko XIV, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/46976/46976-h/46976-h.htm, ukuthola ulwazi ku-Arrian bona https://www.livius.org/sources/content/arrian/

    [V] Imisebenzi ephelele kaJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XI, Isahluko 8, isit 5. 728 pdf

    [vi] Ukuhlolwa kwesahluko 7 sencwadi kaDaniel akusikho mayelana nale ndatshana.

    [vii] Ukuhlolwa kwesahluko 8 sencwadi kaDaniel akusikho mayelana nale ndatshana.

    [viii] https://www.britannica.com/biography/Seleucus-I-Nicator Ngokwe-Encyclopaedia Britannica, uSeleucus wasebenza uPtolemy iminyaka ethile njengomphathi kaPtolemy ngaphambi kokuthatha izintambo zokuphatha iBabiloni futhi wasebenzisa indlela engu-4 eyachithwa yagcwalisa Isiprofetho SeBhayibheli. USeleucus wanikezwa iSyria nguCassander noLysimachus ngenkathi benqoba u-Antigonus, kepha phakathi naleso sikhathi, uPtolemy wayethathe iningizimu yeSyria, futhi uSeleucus wakubeka lokhu kuPtolemy, ngaleyo ndlela efakazela uPtolemy, inkosi enamandla. USeleucus waphinde wabulawa indodana kaPtolemy.

    [ix] https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ptolemy-II-Philadelphus "UPtolemy wayiqeda impi noMbuso wamaSeleucid ngokushada nendodakazi yakhe, uBerenice, owayenikezwe umshado omkhulu kunesitha sakhe u-Antiochus II. Ubukhulu balesi sikhathi sezombusazwe singabonakala ukuthi u-Antiochus, ngaphambi kokushada nenkosazana yasePtolemaic, kwadingeka axoshe lowo owayekade eyiLaodice. ”

    [X] https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ptolemy-III-Euergetes "UPtolemy uhlasele uCoele Syria, azophindisela ngokubulawa kukadadewabo, umfelokazi wenkosi yamaSeleucid u-Antiochus II. Isikebhe sikaPtolemy, mhlawumbe esisizwa amavukela-mbuso emadolobheni, saphambana namabutho kaSeleucus II saze sayofika eTrace, ngaphesheya kweHellespont, futhi sathatha ezinye iziqhingi ogwini lwase-Asia Minor kodwa zahlolwa c. 245. Ngaleso sikhathi, uPtolemy, nebutho, bangena ngaphakathi eMesophothamiya, bafika okungenani eSeleucia eTigris, eduze kwaseBabiloni. Ngokusho kwemithombo yakudala waphoqeleka ukuthi ayeke umsebenzi wakhe ngenxa yezinkinga zasekhaya. Indlala neNayile ephansi, kanye nobumbano obunobutha phakathi kweMakedoniya, iSeleucid Syria, neRhode, mhlawumbe kwakuyizizathu ezengeziwe. Impi eyaqhubeka e-Asia Minor nase-Aegean yaqina njenge-Achaean League, enye yezinhlangano zamaGrikhi, yazibophelela eGibhithe, ngenkathi uSeleucus II ethola izimbangi ezimbili esifundeni saseBlack Sea. UPtolemy waxoshwa eMesopotamia nengxenye yeNyakatho yeSyria ngo-242 kuya ku-241, kwathi ngonyaka olandelayo ukuthula kwagcina kutholakele. ”

    [xi] https://www.livius.org/sources/content/mesopotamian-chronicles-content/bchp-11-invasion-of-ptolemy-iii-chronicle/, Ikakhulu, izingcaphuno ezivela ku-6th Inkulungwane yemonki iCosmas Indicopleustes “INkosi enkulu uPtolemy, indodana yeNkosi uPtolemy [II Philadelphus] neNdlovukazi u-Arsinoe, uMfowethu- noDadewethu Gods, izingane zeNkosi uPtolemy [I Soter] noNdlovukazi u-Berenice uMsindisi Gods, ohlangothini lukababa UHeracles indodana kaZeus, kumama kaDionysus indodana kaZeus, esethathile kuyise umbuso weGibhithe neLibya neSyria neFenikeya neKhupro kanye neLycia kanye neCaria neziqhingi zeCyclades, wahola umkhankaso wangena e-Asia enezinsana kanye izindlovu ezinamabhiza nezikebhe nezindlovu zaseTroglodytic nezaseTopiya, yena noyise baba ngabokuqala ukuzingela kulawa mazwe, futhi, babuyisa eGibhithe, ukuze balungele ukuya empini.

    Lapho sengibe yinkosi yezwe lonke ngaphesheya kwe-Ewufrathe nelaseKhilikhiya nePhamfiliya ne-Ionia neHellespont neTrace kanye nawo wonke amabutho nezindlovu zaseNdiya kulawa mazwe, futhi sezithobele zonke izikhulu ezifundeni ezi (ezahlukahlukene), wawela umfula u-Ewufrathe nangemva kokuzithoba eMesophothamiya naseBabeleya naseSousiana nasePersis naseMediya nalo lonke izwe lonke wakhuphukela eBactria futhi wafuna yonke impahla yethempeli eyayikhishwe abaseGibithe baseGibhithe. babuyisele nayo yonke enye ingcebo evela ezifundeni (ezahlukahlukene) wathumela amabutho akhe eGibhithe ngemisele eyayimbiwe. ” Kucatshulwe ku- [[Bagnall, Derow 1981, No. 26]

    [xii] https://www.livius.org/articles/person/seleucus-ii-callinicus/ Bheka unyaka ka-242/241 BC

    [xiii] Izimpi zamaJuda, ebhalwe nguJosephus Book 12.3.3 p745 of pdf “Kepha emva kwalokho, lapho u-Antiochus egumbuqela leyo mizi yaseCelesyria iScropas ayithathile, iSamariya nayo, amaJuda, ngokuzithandela kwabo, badlulela kuye. , bamamukela edolobheni [iJerusalema], wanika wonke amabutho akhe nezindlovu zakhe usizo oluningi, wasizwa masinyane lapho evimbezela ikamu lasesigodlweni saseJerusalema ”

    [xiv] UJerome -

    [xv] Izimpi zamaJuda, nguJosephus, iNcwadi 12.6.1 kg.747 ye-pdf “EMVA kwalokhu u-Antiochus wenza ubungani futhi wenza isivumelwano noPtolemy, wamnika indodakazi yakhe uCleopatra ukuba abe ngumkakhe, wanikela kuye uCelesyria, neSamariya, neJudiya , kanye neFenike, ngendlela yomshado. Futhi lapho kwahlukaniswa intela phakathi kwamakhosi amabili, wonke amadoda amakhulu ayakha izintela zamazwe awo amaningana, futhi aqoqa isamba esasibekelwe zona, akhokha ngokufanayo kumakhosi [amabili]. Manje ngalesi sikhathi amaSamariya ayesesimweni esihle sokuchuma, futhi ayecindezela kakhulu amaJuda, esika izingxenye zomhlaba wawo futhi ethumba nezigqila. ”

    [xvi] https://www.livius.org/articles/person/antiochus-iii-the-great/ Bheka unyaka 200BC.

    [xvii] https://www.livius.org/articles/person/antiochus-iv-epiphanes/

    [xviii] Izimpi ZamaJuda, nguJosephus, Incwadi I, Isahluko 1, isigaba 1. pg. 9 pdf version

    [xix] I-Antiquities of the Jewish, nguJosephus, Incwadi 12, Isahluko 5, Para 4, ikhasi le-pg.754 pdf

    [xx] I-Antiquities of the Jewish, nguJosephus, Incwadi 12, Isahluko 5, Para 4, ikhasi le-pg.754 pdf

    [xxi] https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Maccabees+5&version=NRSV "Cishe ngalesi sikhathi u-Antiochus waphinda wahlasela iGibhithe okwesibili. ”

    [xxii] https://www.livius.org/articles/concept/syrian-war-6/ ikakhulukazi izehlakalo zika-170-168 BC.

    [xxiii] https://www.livius.org/articles/person/antiochus-iv-epiphanes/ Bheka ngo-168 BC. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Antiochus-IV-Epiphanes#ref19253 isigaba 3

    [xxiv] "Lapho inkosi ivuma noJason[d] weza ehhovisi, khona manjalo washintshela abangane bakhe enkambweni yokuphila yamaGrikhi. 11 Wabeka eceleni ukuvumelana kwasebukhosini okwakukhona kumaJuda, okuvikeleke ngaye ngoJohane uyise ka-Eupolemus, owahamba ethubeni lokumisa ubungani nobumbano namaRoma; futhi yachitha izindlela ezisemthethweni zokuphila futhi yaqala namasiko amasha aphambene nomthetho. 12 Wayekujabulela ukusungula indawo yokuzivocavoca khona kanye ngaphansi kwekhoseni, futhi wanxenxa izikhulu ezinhle kakhulu zensizwa ukuba zigqoke isigqoko sesiGreek. 13 Kwakukhona ukweqisa okungako kweHellenization nokwanda ekwamukelweni kwezindlela zakwamanye amazwe ngenxa yobubi obudlangile bukaJason, owayengamesabi uNkulunkulu futhi engelona iqiniso[e] umpristi omkhulu, 14 ukuthi abapristi bebengasazimisele ngokusebenza kwabo e-altare. Edelela indawo engcwele futhi anganaki imihlatshelo, ashesha ukubamba iqhaza enkantolo ngokungemthetho enkundleni yokubambana ngemuva kwesibonakaliso sokuphonswa kwe-discus, 15 ukwedelela ukuhlonishwa okwenziwa okhokho babo nokubeka inani eliphakeme kakhulu ezinkulungwaneni zamaGrikhi. ”

    [xxv] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XV, Isahluko 3, isigaba 3.

    [xxvi] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XIV, Isahluko 2, (158).

    [xxvii] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XIV, Isahluko 2, (159-160).

    [xxviii] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XIV, Isahluko 2, (165).

    [xxix] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XV, Isahluko 5, (5)

    [xxx] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XV, Isahluko 15, (2) "Nomuntu wase-Idumean, okungukuthi, umJuda ongxenye"

    [xxxi] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XV, Isahluko 11, (1)

    [xxxii] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XV, Isahluko 8, (5)

    [xxxiii] UJosephus, The Wars of the Jewish, Incwadi I, Isahluko 21 isigaba 2,4

    [xxxiv] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XV, Isahluko 11, (4-7)

    [xxxv] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XV, Isahluko 7, (7-8)

    [xxxvi] Plutarch, Life of Antony, Isahluko 61 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2008.01.0007:chapter=61&highlight=herod

    [xxxvii] Plutarch, Life of Antony, Isahluko 62.1 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2008.01.0007%3Achapter%3D62%3Asection%3D1

    [xxxviii] UJosephus, izimpi zamaJuda, Incwadi I, Isahluko 20 (3)

    [xxxix] Umlando wasendulo we-Universal Vol Vol XIII, ikhasi 498 noPliny, Strabo, Dio Cassius ocashunwe kuPrideaux Connections Vol II. pp605 kuqhubeke.

    [xl] Plutarch, Life of Antony, Isahluko 76 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2008.01.0007%3Achapter%3D76

    [xli] Plutarch, Life of Antony, Isahluko 78.3 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2008.01.0007%3Achapter%3D78%3Asection%3D3

    [xlii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Cornelius_Balbus_(proconsul)#cite_note-4

    [xliii] UJosephus, Izimpi ZamaJuda, Incwadi I, Isahluko 23 Isigaba 2

    [xliv] UJosephus, i-Antiquities of the Jewish, Incwadi XVII, izahluko 6, isigaba 5 - Isahluko 8, isigaba 1 https://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-17.htm

    [xlv] https://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250103.htm U-Eusebius, Umlando weBandla Book III, Isahluko 5, isigaba 3.

    [xlvi] https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6382.htm

    [xlvii] https://www.livius.org/articles/concept/roman-jewish-wars/roman-jewish-wars-5/ ngezinkinga ngokunikeza ukuqondana ngqo kwalesi sikhathi. Ngithathe usuku lweTire lapha.

    [xlviii] I-Panemus yinyanga yaseMakedoniya - inyanga kaJuni (ikhalenda yenyanga), elilingana neTammuz yamaJuda, inyanga yokuqala yehlobo, inyanga yesine, kusukela ngoJuni kuya kuJulayi kuya ekuqaleni kukaNisan ngqo - kungaba ngoMashi noma ngo-Ephreli.

    [xlix] https://www.livius.org/articles/concept/roman-jewish-wars/roman-jewish-wars-5/ ngezinkinga ngokunikeza ukuqondana ngqo kwalesi sikhathi.

    [l] https://www.livius.org/articles/concept/roman-jewish-wars/roman-jewish-wars-5/ ngezinkinga ngokunikeza ukuqondana ngqo kwalesi sikhathi. Ngithathe usuku lwamaJuda lapha.

    [li] Bheka uDaniel 11:40 ngamagama afanayo

    [lii] Ngenye indlela, u-74 AD. Ngokuwa kweMasada nezimali zokugcina zombuso wamaJuda.

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